Graves Upper Eyelid Retraction

Antonio Augusto Velasco Cruz, Sara F.T. Ribeiro, Denny M. Garcia, Patricia Mitiko Akaishi, Carolina T. Pinto

Research output: Contribution to journalReview article

Abstract

Graves upper eyelid retraction (GUER) is the most common and characteristic sign of Graves orbitopathy. Despite being well recognized since the 19th century, GUER is still a subject of controversy. We review GUER, including historical aspects, diagnosis, methods of measurements, ocular surface abnormalities, etiology, and medical and surgical treatments. There is no consensus about the mechanisms of its etiology or the best surgical correction. There is a need for quantitative studies on the effects of GUER on lid movements.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)63-76
Number of pages14
JournalSurvey of ophthalmology
Volume58
Issue number1
DOIs
StatePublished - Jan 1 2013

Keywords

  • Eyelid movements
  • Graves disease
  • Management
  • Upper eyelid retraction

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Ophthalmology

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  • Cite this

    Cruz, A. A. V., Ribeiro, S. F. T., Garcia, D. M., Akaishi, P. M., & Pinto, C. T. (2013). Graves Upper Eyelid Retraction. Survey of ophthalmology, 58(1), 63-76. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.survophthal.2012.02.007