Graves Upper Eyelid Retraction

Antonio Augusto Velasco Cruz, Sara F.T. Ribeiro, Denny M. Garcia, Patricia Mitiko Akaishi, Carolina T. Pinto

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review


Graves upper eyelid retraction (GUER) is the most common and characteristic sign of Graves orbitopathy. Despite being well recognized since the 19th century, GUER is still a subject of controversy. We review GUER, including historical aspects, diagnosis, methods of measurements, ocular surface abnormalities, etiology, and medical and surgical treatments. There is no consensus about the mechanisms of its etiology or the best surgical correction. There is a need for quantitative studies on the effects of GUER on lid movements.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)63-76
Number of pages14
JournalSurvey of ophthalmology
Issue number1
StatePublished - Jan 2013
Externally publishedYes


  • Eyelid movements
  • Graves disease
  • Management
  • Upper eyelid retraction

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Ophthalmology


Dive into the research topics of 'Graves Upper Eyelid Retraction'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this