Gonadal steroid receptor mRNA in catecholaminergic nuclei of the canary brainstem

Donna L. Maney, Daniel J. Bernard, Gregory F. Ball

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

49 Scopus citations


Steroid actions in the song system may be modulated by ascending inputs from catecholaminergic (CA) brain nuclei; however, whether these nuclei contain steroid receptors is unknown. Here, we compared the distribution of androgen receptor (AR) and estrogen receptor-alpha (ER-α) mRNA with that of tyrosine hydroxylase immunoreactivity (TH-IR) in the brainstems of male canaries. Areas containing AR and ER-α mRNA overlapped with areas containing TH-IR cell bodies in the locus ceruleus and the area ventralis of Tsai. The substantia nigra and the midbrain central gray contained both TH-IR and AR mRNA. The presence of AR and ER-α within CA cell groups suggests that sex steroid hormones may modulate song production at the site of CA synthesis.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)189-192
Number of pages4
JournalNeuroscience Letters
Issue number3
StatePublished - Oct 5 2001
Externally publishedYes


  • Androgen receptor
  • Area ventralis
  • Central gray
  • Estrogen receptor
  • Locus ceruleus
  • Song
  • Tyrosine hydroxylase

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Neuroscience(all)


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