The association of prediabetic states with endothelial dysfunction measured by flow-mediated dilation (FMD) or endothelial biomarker levels remains controversial. We examined data from 5 ethnic groups to determine the association between glucose categories and FMD or endothelial biomarkers. We determined whether these associations vary by ethnic group or body mass index. We used data from 3516 participants from 5 race/ethnic groups with brachial FMD, endothelial biomarkers, and glucose category (normal, impaired fasting glucose [IFG], and diabetes) measures. There were significant ethnic differences in FMD, biomarker levels, and the prevalence of IFG and diabetes. However, all 5 ethnic groups showed similar patterns of higher FMD for the IFG group compared with the normal glucose and diabetes groups, which was most significant among whites and Asian Indians. Associations between glucose categories and endothelial biomarkers were more uniform, with the IFG and diabetes groups having higher biomarker levels than the normal glucose group. These associations did not change with further adjustment for fasting insulin levels. Whites with normal BMI had higher FMD values with higher glucose levels, but those with BMI in the overweight or obese categories had the inverse association (P for interaction=0.01). The discordance of IFG being associated with higher FMD but more abnormal endothelial biomarker levels is a novel finding. This higher FMD for the IFG group was most notable in whites of normal BMI. The higher FMD among those with impaired fasting glucose may reflect differences in insulin signaling pathways between the endothelium and skeletal muscle.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine