In this article we present evidence supporting the interaction between excitotoxicity, beta APP mismetabolism, metabolic compromise and intracellular calcium destabilization in the process of neurodegeneration associated with Alzheimer's disease (AD). AD is characterized by the presence of neurofibrillary tangles and amyloid-containing plaques in specific regions of the brain. There appear to be several processes which contribute to the neurodegeneration associated with AD. Although AD has been linked to genetic mutations on chromosomes 21, 19 and 14, there are sporadic forms of AD that have no known genetic mutation involved. Aging is the major risk factor for AD. During the course of normal aging several metabolic compromises may occur in the brain. Both decreased glucose transport and utilization, and increased glucocorticoid levels are known to occur with aging and may lead to decreased energy supplies, ATP depletion, failure of Ca2+ buffering systems, excess glutamate release and activation of glutamate receptors. In addition, a reduction in antioxidant enzymes and consequently an increase in free radicals has also been associated with aging. Each of the preceeding alterations would lead to an increase in neuronal [Ca2+]i. Elevated calcium could then activate calcium-dependent proteases which degrade particular cytoskeletal proteins, and lipases which generate free radicals resulting in membrane damage and possible cell death. In this article we provide evidence that amyloid beta-peptide (A beta), the substance which accumulates in AD plaques, exacerbates excitotoxic and metabolic compromises to neurons resulting in changes in the cytoskeleton which resemble those seen in the neurofibrillary tangles of AD. We also provide evidence that secreted forms of beta-amyloid precursor protein (beta APP) are neuroprotective against excitotoxic insults. Recent findings concerning the normal function of beta APP and the mechanism of A beta toxicity place beta APP at the center of changes leading to neuronal degeneration in AD.
|Original language||English (US)|
|Number of pages||17|
|Journal||Journal of Neural Transmission, Supplement|
|State||Published - 1994|
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