Fortunately, the majority of children conceived through assisted reproductive technologies (ARTs) appear healthy; however, metabolic abnormalities, including elevated glucose and increased and altered adipose tissue deposition, have been reported in adolescents. To parse out factors that may be responsible, we investigated the effects of two different ARTs - in vitro fertilization (IVF) and intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) - as well as somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) on glucose clearance, body weight, and body composition of young adult mice. Female and male mice generated through ART weighed more than control (naturally conceived [STOCK]) mice at birth. No differences in body weight were observed in males up to 8 wk of age. ART females took longer than control mice to clear a glucose bolus, with glucose clearance most impaired in SCNT females. IVF females secreted more insulin and had a higher insulin peak 15 min after glucose injection compared with all other groups. Male mice exhibited no differences in glucose clearance, but IVF males required more insulin to do so. SCNT females weighed more than IVF, ICSI, and STOCK females, and they had higher fat content than ICSI females and higher leptin levels than all other groups. These results show that glucose parameters are altered in young adult mice conceived through techniques associated with ART before onset of obesity and may be responsible for its development later in life. The present study suggests that more investigation regarding the long-term effects of manipulations associated with ART is warranted.
- Assisted reproductive technology
- In vitro fertilization
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Reproductive Medicine
- Cell Biology