Gluconic acid production under varying fermentation conditions by Aspergillus niger

Om V. Singh, Rakesh K. Jain, Rajesh P. Singh

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

34 Scopus citations


The production of gluconic acid with respect to varying substrate concentrations in submerged (SmF), semisolid-state (SmSF), surface (SF), and solid-state surface (SSF) fermentations was analyzed. Under the various fermentation conditions the biomass and specific growth rate varied with different concentrations of glucose. The highest level of gluconic acid (106.5 g dm-3) with 94.7% yield was obtained under SSF conditions. In all cases the maximum degree of gluconic acid conversion was observed at on initial substrate concentration of 120 g dm-3. The rate of glucose uptake increased on increasing the initial glucose concentration and glucose utilization was observed to be highest (89-94%) in the SmSF process and was comparable with the SSF and SF processes. The maximum rate of cell growth was obtained in all processes at an initial glucose concentration of 120 g dm-3. The gluconic acid production and change in pH were analyzed at varying time intervals and it was observed that the SmF and SmSF processes were completed within 6 days of incubation whereas the highest yield was observed after 12 days of incubation and continued thereafter in the SSF process.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)208-212
Number of pages5
JournalJournal of Chemical Technology and Biotechnology
Issue number2-3
StatePublished - Feb 1 2003


  • Aspergillus niger
  • Gluconic acid
  • Semisolid-state fermentation
  • Solid-state surface fermentation
  • Submerged fermentation
  • Surface fermentation

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Biotechnology
  • Chemical Engineering(all)
  • Renewable Energy, Sustainability and the Environment
  • Fuel Technology
  • Waste Management and Disposal
  • Pollution
  • Organic Chemistry
  • Inorganic Chemistry


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