Glomerular filtration rate measurement and estimation in chronic kidney disease

George J. Schwartz, Susan L. Furth

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Abstract

Glomerular filtration rate (GFR) assesses kidney function. GFR is measured by renal clearance techniques; inulin clearance is the gold standard but is not easily measured. Thus, other methods to determine GFR have been utilized. Endogenous creatinine clearance (CrCl) is the most widely used, but creatinine secretion falsely elevates GFR. Cimetidine inhibits creatinine secretion, such that CrCl equals GFR, provided there are no difficulties with bladder emptying. Estimation of GFR from serum creatinine (e.g. Schwartz formula) is useful clinically; however, such formulae have not been updated for enzymatic creatinine autoanalyzers. Cystatin C, a small protein, is produced at a relatively constant rate and is reabsorbed in the proximal tubule. Cystatin C may be more sensitive than creatinine in detecting a reduction in GFR, but further studies are needed to prove this. Single injection (plasma) clearance techniques are the most precise measures of GFR. Iohexol is an exogenous marker that is comparable to inulin and 51Cr-EDTA and can be measured by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Our pilot and the Chronic Kidney Disease in Children (CKiD) North American studies show that iohexol can accurately measure GFR using a four-point plasma disappearance curve national studies show that iohexol can accurately measure GFR using a four-point plasma disappearance curve (10, 30, 120, and 300 min) or, in most cases, a two-point disappearance time (120 and 300 min).

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)1839-1848
Number of pages10
JournalPediatric Nephrology
Volume22
Issue number11
DOIs
StatePublished - Nov 1 2007

Keywords

  • Cimetidine
  • Creatinine clearance
  • Cystatin C
  • HPLC
  • Iohexol
  • KDOQI
  • Plasma clearance

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Pediatrics, Perinatology, and Child Health
  • Nephrology

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