Global Vaccine Action Plan lessons learned III: Monitoring and evaluation/accountability framework

Thomas Cherian, Angela Hwang, Carsten Mantel, Chantal Veira, Stefano Malvolti, Noni MacDonald, Christoph Steffen, Ian Jones, Alan Hinman

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Introduction: The Monitoring & Evaluation/Accountability (M&E/A) framework of the Global Vaccine Action Plan (GVAP) was used to report progress annually to the World Health Assembly (WHA). Methods: Stakeholder feedback was obtained through five reviews consisting of surveys and semi-structured interviews conducted from 2017 to 2019. Participants consisted of individuals involved in the development and implementation of GVAP or its M&E/A process, national immunization managers, academics, representatives of non-governmental organizations, and civil society organizations. Results: The feedback was mixed and contradictory for some components, though most participants reported that the M&E/A process was a highlight of GVAP and a step in the right direction. Several of the goals and targets were considered aspirational and unrealistic for many countries. There were mixed responses on whether it promoted accountability, especially at the country level. Discussion: The mixed and contradictory views on the M&E/A processes and its impact suggested a failure of communication about its scope and intent. Though the process, especially the annual reporting to the WHA, kept immunization high on the global agenda, it failed to fully meet the expectations in promoting accountability. Engaging with countries to capture the local context in setting global goals and targets and promoting local M&E/A processes will be important to achieve accountability in the next decade.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)5379-5383
Number of pages5
Issue number33
StatePublished - Jul 14 2020
Externally publishedYes


  • Global Vaccine Action Plan
  • Immunization
  • Monitoring and evaluation

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Molecular Medicine
  • Immunology and Microbiology(all)
  • veterinary(all)
  • Public Health, Environmental and Occupational Health
  • Infectious Diseases


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