Global and national burden of diseases and injuries among children and adolescents between 1990 and 2013 findings from the global burden of disease 2013 study

Theo Vos, Hmwe H. Kyu, Christine Pinho, Joseph A. Wagner, Jonathan C. Brown, Amelia Bertozzi-Villa, Fiona J. Charlson, Luc Edgar Coffeng, Lalit Dandona, Holly E. Erskine, Alize J. Ferrari, Christina Fitzmaurice, Thomas D. Fleming, Mohammad H. Forouzanfar, Nicholas Graetz, Caterina Guinovart, Juanita Haagsma, Hideki Higashi, Nicholas J. Kassebaum, Heidi J. LarsonStephen S. Lim, Ali H. Mokdad, Maziar Moradi-Lakeh, Shaun V. Odell, Gregory A. Roth, Peter T. Serina, Jeffrey D. Stanaway, Awoke Misganaw, Harvey A. Whiteford, Timothy M. Wolock, Sarah Wulf Hanson, Foad Abd-Allah, Semaw Ferede Abera, Laith J. Abu-Raddad, Fadia S. Al Buhairan, Azmeraw T. Amare, Carl Abelardo T. Antonio, Al Artaman, Suzanne L. Barker-Collo, Lope H. Barrero, Corina Benjet, Isabela M. Bensenor, Zulfiqar A. Bhutta, Boris Bikbov, Alexandra Brazinova, Ismael Campos-Nonato, Carlos A. Castañeda-Orjuela, Ferrán Catalá-López, Rajiv Chowdhury, Cyrus Cooper, John A. Crump, Rakhi Dandona, Louisa Degenhardt, Robert P. Dellavalle, Samath D. Dharmaratne, Emerito Jose A. Faraon, Valery L. Feigin, Thomas Fürst, Johanna M. Geleijnse, Bradford D. Gessner, Katherine B. Gibney, Atsushi Goto, David Gunnell, Graeme J. Hankey, Roderick J. Hay, John C. Hornberger, H. Dean Hosgood, Guoqing Hu, Kathryn H. Jacobsen, Sudha P. Jayaraman, Panniyammakal Jeemon, Jost B. Jonas, André Karch, Daniel Kim, Sungroul Kim, Yoshihiro Kokubo, Barthelemy Kuate Defo, Burcu Kucuk Bicer, G. Anil Kumar, Anders Larsson, Janet L. Leasher, Ricky Leung, Yongmei Li, Steven E. Lipshultz, Alan D. Lopez, Paulo A. Lotufo, Raimundas Lunevicius, Ronan A. Lyons, Marek Majdan, Reza Malekzadeh, Taufiq Mashal, Amanda J. Mason-Jones, Yohannes Adama Melaku, Ziad A. Memish, Walter Mendoza, Ted R. Miller, Charles N. Mock, Joseph Murray, Sandra Nolte, In Hwan Oh, Bolajoko Olubukunola Olusanya, Katrina F. Ortblad, Eun Kee Park, Angel J.Paternina Caicedo, Scott B. Patten, George C. Patton, David M. Pereira, Norberto Perico, Frédéric B. Piel, Suzanne Polinder, Svetlana Popova, Farshad Pourmalek, D. Alex Quistberg, Giuseppe Remuzzi, Alina Rodriguez, David Rojas-Rueda, Dietrich Rothenbacher, David H. Rothstein, Juan Sanabria, Itamar S. Santos, David C. Schwebel, Sadaf G. Sepanlou, Amira Shaheen, Rahman Shiri, Ivy Shiue, Vegard Skirbekk, Karen Sliwa, Chandrashekhar T. Sreeramareddy, Dan J. Stein, Timothy J. Steiner, Lars Jacob Stovner, Bryan L. Sykes, Karen M. Tabb, Abdullah Sulieman Terkawi, Alan J. Thomson, Andrew Thorne-Lyman, Jeffrey Allen Towbin, Kingsley Nnanna Ukwaja, Tommi Vasankari, Narayanaswamy Venketasubramanian, Vasiliy Victorovich Vlassov, Stein Emil Vollset, Elisabete Weiderpass, Robert G. Weintraub, Andrea Werdecker, James D. Wilkinson, Solomon Meseret Woldeyohannes, Charles D.A. Wolfe, Yuichiro Yano, Paul Yip, Naohiro Yonemoto, Seok Jun Yoon, Mustafa Z. Younis, Chuanhua Yu, Maysaa El Sayed Zaki, Mohsen Naghavi, Christopher J.L. Murray

Research output: Contribution to journalReview article

Abstract

IMPORTANCE: The literature focuses on mortality among children younger than 5 years. Comparable information on nonfatal health outcomes among these children and the fatal and nonfatal burden of diseases and injuries among older children and adolescents is scarce. OBJECTIVE: To determine levels and trends in the fatal and nonfatal burden of diseases and injuries among younger children (aged < 5 years), older children (aged 5-9 years), and adolescents (aged 10-19 years) between 1990 and 2013 in 188 countries from the Global Burden of Disease (GBD) 2013 study. EVIDENCE REVIEW: Data from vital registration, verbal autopsy studies, maternal and child death surveillance, and other sources covering 14 244 site-years (ie, years of cause of death data by geography) from 1980 through 2013 were used to estimate cause-specific mortality. Data from 35 620 epidemiological sources were used to estimate the prevalence of the diseases and sequelae in the GBD 2013 study. Cause-specific mortality for most causes was estimated using the Cause of Death Ensemble Model strategy. For some infectious diseases (eg, HIVinfection/AIDS, measles, hepatitis B) where the disease process is complex or the cause of death data were insufficient or unavailable, we used natural history models. For most nonfatal health outcomes, DisMod-MR2.0, a Bayesian metaregression tool, was used to meta-analyze the epidemiological data to generate prevalence estimates. FINDINGS: Of the 7.7 (95% uncertainty interval [UI], 7.4-8.1) million deaths among children and adolescents globally in 2013,6.28 million occurred amongyounger children, 0.48 million among older children, and 0.97 million among adolescents. In 2013, the leading causes of death were lower respiratory tract infections amongyounger children (905 059 deaths; 95% UI, 810 304-998125), diarrheal diseases among older children (38 325 deaths; 95% UI, 30 365-47 678), and road injuries among adolescents (115186 deaths; 95% UI, 105185-124 870). Iron deficiency anemia was the leading cause of years lived with disability among children and adolescents, affecting 619 (95% UI, 618-621) million in 2013. Large between-country variations exist in mortality from leading causes among children and adolescents. Countries with rapid declines in all-cause mortality between 1990 and 2013 also experienced large declines in most leading causes of death, whereas countries with the slowest declines had stagnant or increasing trends in the leading causes of death. In 2013, Nigeria had a 12% global share of deaths from lower respiratory tract infections and a 38% global share of deaths from malaria. India had 33% of the world's deaths from neonatal encephalopathy. Half of the world's diarrheal deaths among children and adolescents occurred injust 5 countries: India, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Pakistan, Nigeria, and Ethiopia. CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE: Understanding the levels and trends of the leading causes of death and disability among children and adolescents is critical to guide investment and inform policies. Monitoring these trends over time is also key to understanding where interventions are having an impact. Proven interventions exist to prevent or treat the leading causes of unnecessary death and disability among children and adolescents. The findings presented here show that these are underused and give guidance to policy makers in countries where more attention is needed.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)267-287
Number of pages21
JournalJAMA Pediatrics
Volume170
Issue number3
DOIs
StatePublished - Mar 1 2016
Externally publishedYes

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Wounds and Injuries
Cause of Death
Uncertainty
Mortality
Nigeria
Global Burden of Disease
Respiratory Tract Infections
India
Democratic Republic of the Congo
Child Mortality
Maternal Death
Geography
Ethiopia
Iron-Deficiency Anemias
Pakistan
Disabled Children
Health
Measles
Brain Diseases
Natural History

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Pediatrics, Perinatology, and Child Health

Cite this

Global and national burden of diseases and injuries among children and adolescents between 1990 and 2013 findings from the global burden of disease 2013 study. / Vos, Theo; Kyu, Hmwe H.; Pinho, Christine; Wagner, Joseph A.; Brown, Jonathan C.; Bertozzi-Villa, Amelia; Charlson, Fiona J.; Coffeng, Luc Edgar; Dandona, Lalit; Erskine, Holly E.; Ferrari, Alize J.; Fitzmaurice, Christina; Fleming, Thomas D.; Forouzanfar, Mohammad H.; Graetz, Nicholas; Guinovart, Caterina; Haagsma, Juanita; Higashi, Hideki; Kassebaum, Nicholas J.; Larson, Heidi J.; Lim, Stephen S.; Mokdad, Ali H.; Moradi-Lakeh, Maziar; Odell, Shaun V.; Roth, Gregory A.; Serina, Peter T.; Stanaway, Jeffrey D.; Misganaw, Awoke; Whiteford, Harvey A.; Wolock, Timothy M.; Hanson, Sarah Wulf; Abd-Allah, Foad; Abera, Semaw Ferede; Abu-Raddad, Laith J.; Al Buhairan, Fadia S.; Amare, Azmeraw T.; Antonio, Carl Abelardo T.; Artaman, Al; Barker-Collo, Suzanne L.; Barrero, Lope H.; Benjet, Corina; Bensenor, Isabela M.; Bhutta, Zulfiqar A.; Bikbov, Boris; Brazinova, Alexandra; Campos-Nonato, Ismael; Castañeda-Orjuela, Carlos A.; Catalá-López, Ferrán; Chowdhury, Rajiv; Cooper, Cyrus; Crump, John A.; Dandona, Rakhi; Degenhardt, Louisa; Dellavalle, Robert P.; Dharmaratne, Samath D.; Faraon, Emerito Jose A.; Feigin, Valery L.; Fürst, Thomas; Geleijnse, Johanna M.; Gessner, Bradford D.; Gibney, Katherine B.; Goto, Atsushi; Gunnell, David; Hankey, Graeme J.; Hay, Roderick J.; Hornberger, John C.; Hosgood, H. Dean; Hu, Guoqing; Jacobsen, Kathryn H.; Jayaraman, Sudha P.; Jeemon, Panniyammakal; Jonas, Jost B.; Karch, André; Kim, Daniel; Kim, Sungroul; Kokubo, Yoshihiro; Defo, Barthelemy Kuate; Bicer, Burcu Kucuk; Kumar, G. Anil; Larsson, Anders; Leasher, Janet L.; Leung, Ricky; Li, Yongmei; Lipshultz, Steven E.; Lopez, Alan D.; Lotufo, Paulo A.; Lunevicius, Raimundas; Lyons, Ronan A.; Majdan, Marek; Malekzadeh, Reza; Mashal, Taufiq; Mason-Jones, Amanda J.; Melaku, Yohannes Adama; Memish, Ziad A.; Mendoza, Walter; Miller, Ted R.; Mock, Charles N.; Murray, Joseph; Nolte, Sandra; Oh, In Hwan; Olusanya, Bolajoko Olubukunola; Ortblad, Katrina F.; Park, Eun Kee; Caicedo, Angel J.Paternina; Patten, Scott B.; Patton, George C.; Pereira, David M.; Perico, Norberto; Piel, Frédéric B.; Polinder, Suzanne; Popova, Svetlana; Pourmalek, Farshad; Quistberg, D. Alex; Remuzzi, Giuseppe; Rodriguez, Alina; Rojas-Rueda, David; Rothenbacher, Dietrich; Rothstein, David H.; Sanabria, Juan; Santos, Itamar S.; Schwebel, David C.; Sepanlou, Sadaf G.; Shaheen, Amira; Shiri, Rahman; Shiue, Ivy; Skirbekk, Vegard; Sliwa, Karen; Sreeramareddy, Chandrashekhar T.; Stein, Dan J.; Steiner, Timothy J.; Stovner, Lars Jacob; Sykes, Bryan L.; Tabb, Karen M.; Terkawi, Abdullah Sulieman; Thomson, Alan J.; Thorne-Lyman, Andrew; Towbin, Jeffrey Allen; Ukwaja, Kingsley Nnanna; Vasankari, Tommi; Venketasubramanian, Narayanaswamy; Vlassov, Vasiliy Victorovich; Vollset, Stein Emil; Weiderpass, Elisabete; Weintraub, Robert G.; Werdecker, Andrea; Wilkinson, James D.; Woldeyohannes, Solomon Meseret; Wolfe, Charles D.A.; Yano, Yuichiro; Yip, Paul; Yonemoto, Naohiro; Yoon, Seok Jun; Younis, Mustafa Z.; Yu, Chuanhua; El Sayed Zaki, Maysaa; Naghavi, Mohsen; Murray, Christopher J.L.

In: JAMA Pediatrics, Vol. 170, No. 3, 01.03.2016, p. 267-287.

Research output: Contribution to journalReview article

Vos, T, Kyu, HH, Pinho, C, Wagner, JA, Brown, JC, Bertozzi-Villa, A, Charlson, FJ, Coffeng, LE, Dandona, L, Erskine, HE, Ferrari, AJ, Fitzmaurice, C, Fleming, TD, Forouzanfar, MH, Graetz, N, Guinovart, C, Haagsma, J, Higashi, H, Kassebaum, NJ, Larson, HJ, Lim, SS, Mokdad, AH, Moradi-Lakeh, M, Odell, SV, Roth, GA, Serina, PT, Stanaway, JD, Misganaw, A, Whiteford, HA, Wolock, TM, Hanson, SW, Abd-Allah, F, Abera, SF, Abu-Raddad, LJ, Al Buhairan, FS, Amare, AT, Antonio, CAT, Artaman, A, Barker-Collo, SL, Barrero, LH, Benjet, C, Bensenor, IM, Bhutta, ZA, Bikbov, B, Brazinova, A, Campos-Nonato, I, Castañeda-Orjuela, CA, Catalá-López, F, Chowdhury, R, Cooper, C, Crump, JA, Dandona, R, Degenhardt, L, Dellavalle, RP, Dharmaratne, SD, Faraon, EJA, Feigin, VL, Fürst, T, Geleijnse, JM, Gessner, BD, Gibney, KB, Goto, A, Gunnell, D, Hankey, GJ, Hay, RJ, Hornberger, JC, Hosgood, HD, Hu, G, Jacobsen, KH, Jayaraman, SP, Jeemon, P, Jonas, JB, Karch, A, Kim, D, Kim, S, Kokubo, Y, Defo, BK, Bicer, BK, Kumar, GA, Larsson, A, Leasher, JL, Leung, R, Li, Y, Lipshultz, SE, Lopez, AD, Lotufo, PA, Lunevicius, R, Lyons, RA, Majdan, M, Malekzadeh, R, Mashal, T, Mason-Jones, AJ, Melaku, YA, Memish, ZA, Mendoza, W, Miller, TR, Mock, CN, Murray, J, Nolte, S, Oh, IH, Olusanya, BO, Ortblad, KF, Park, EK, Caicedo, AJP, Patten, SB, Patton, GC, Pereira, DM, Perico, N, Piel, FB, Polinder, S, Popova, S, Pourmalek, F, Quistberg, DA, Remuzzi, G, Rodriguez, A, Rojas-Rueda, D, Rothenbacher, D, Rothstein, DH, Sanabria, J, Santos, IS, Schwebel, DC, Sepanlou, SG, Shaheen, A, Shiri, R, Shiue, I, Skirbekk, V, Sliwa, K, Sreeramareddy, CT, Stein, DJ, Steiner, TJ, Stovner, LJ, Sykes, BL, Tabb, KM, Terkawi, AS, Thomson, AJ, Thorne-Lyman, A, Towbin, JA, Ukwaja, KN, Vasankari, T, Venketasubramanian, N, Vlassov, VV, Vollset, SE, Weiderpass, E, Weintraub, RG, Werdecker, A, Wilkinson, JD, Woldeyohannes, SM, Wolfe, CDA, Yano, Y, Yip, P, Yonemoto, N, Yoon, SJ, Younis, MZ, Yu, C, El Sayed Zaki, M, Naghavi, M & Murray, CJL 2016, 'Global and national burden of diseases and injuries among children and adolescents between 1990 and 2013 findings from the global burden of disease 2013 study', JAMA Pediatrics, vol. 170, no. 3, pp. 267-287. https://doi.org/10.1001/jamapediatrics.2015.4276
Vos, Theo ; Kyu, Hmwe H. ; Pinho, Christine ; Wagner, Joseph A. ; Brown, Jonathan C. ; Bertozzi-Villa, Amelia ; Charlson, Fiona J. ; Coffeng, Luc Edgar ; Dandona, Lalit ; Erskine, Holly E. ; Ferrari, Alize J. ; Fitzmaurice, Christina ; Fleming, Thomas D. ; Forouzanfar, Mohammad H. ; Graetz, Nicholas ; Guinovart, Caterina ; Haagsma, Juanita ; Higashi, Hideki ; Kassebaum, Nicholas J. ; Larson, Heidi J. ; Lim, Stephen S. ; Mokdad, Ali H. ; Moradi-Lakeh, Maziar ; Odell, Shaun V. ; Roth, Gregory A. ; Serina, Peter T. ; Stanaway, Jeffrey D. ; Misganaw, Awoke ; Whiteford, Harvey A. ; Wolock, Timothy M. ; Hanson, Sarah Wulf ; Abd-Allah, Foad ; Abera, Semaw Ferede ; Abu-Raddad, Laith J. ; Al Buhairan, Fadia S. ; Amare, Azmeraw T. ; Antonio, Carl Abelardo T. ; Artaman, Al ; Barker-Collo, Suzanne L. ; Barrero, Lope H. ; Benjet, Corina ; Bensenor, Isabela M. ; Bhutta, Zulfiqar A. ; Bikbov, Boris ; Brazinova, Alexandra ; Campos-Nonato, Ismael ; Castañeda-Orjuela, Carlos A. ; Catalá-López, Ferrán ; Chowdhury, Rajiv ; Cooper, Cyrus ; Crump, John A. ; Dandona, Rakhi ; Degenhardt, Louisa ; Dellavalle, Robert P. ; Dharmaratne, Samath D. ; Faraon, Emerito Jose A. ; Feigin, Valery L. ; Fürst, Thomas ; Geleijnse, Johanna M. ; Gessner, Bradford D. ; Gibney, Katherine B. ; Goto, Atsushi ; Gunnell, David ; Hankey, Graeme J. ; Hay, Roderick J. ; Hornberger, John C. ; Hosgood, H. Dean ; Hu, Guoqing ; Jacobsen, Kathryn H. ; Jayaraman, Sudha P. ; Jeemon, Panniyammakal ; Jonas, Jost B. ; Karch, André ; Kim, Daniel ; Kim, Sungroul ; Kokubo, Yoshihiro ; Defo, Barthelemy Kuate ; Bicer, Burcu Kucuk ; Kumar, G. Anil ; Larsson, Anders ; Leasher, Janet L. ; Leung, Ricky ; Li, Yongmei ; Lipshultz, Steven E. ; Lopez, Alan D. ; Lotufo, Paulo A. ; Lunevicius, Raimundas ; Lyons, Ronan A. ; Majdan, Marek ; Malekzadeh, Reza ; Mashal, Taufiq ; Mason-Jones, Amanda J. ; Melaku, Yohannes Adama ; Memish, Ziad A. ; Mendoza, Walter ; Miller, Ted R. ; Mock, Charles N. ; Murray, Joseph ; Nolte, Sandra ; Oh, In Hwan ; Olusanya, Bolajoko Olubukunola ; Ortblad, Katrina F. ; Park, Eun Kee ; Caicedo, Angel J.Paternina ; Patten, Scott B. ; Patton, George C. ; Pereira, David M. ; Perico, Norberto ; Piel, Frédéric B. ; Polinder, Suzanne ; Popova, Svetlana ; Pourmalek, Farshad ; Quistberg, D. Alex ; Remuzzi, Giuseppe ; Rodriguez, Alina ; Rojas-Rueda, David ; Rothenbacher, Dietrich ; Rothstein, David H. ; Sanabria, Juan ; Santos, Itamar S. ; Schwebel, David C. ; Sepanlou, Sadaf G. ; Shaheen, Amira ; Shiri, Rahman ; Shiue, Ivy ; Skirbekk, Vegard ; Sliwa, Karen ; Sreeramareddy, Chandrashekhar T. ; Stein, Dan J. ; Steiner, Timothy J. ; Stovner, Lars Jacob ; Sykes, Bryan L. ; Tabb, Karen M. ; Terkawi, Abdullah Sulieman ; Thomson, Alan J. ; Thorne-Lyman, Andrew ; Towbin, Jeffrey Allen ; Ukwaja, Kingsley Nnanna ; Vasankari, Tommi ; Venketasubramanian, Narayanaswamy ; Vlassov, Vasiliy Victorovich ; Vollset, Stein Emil ; Weiderpass, Elisabete ; Weintraub, Robert G. ; Werdecker, Andrea ; Wilkinson, James D. ; Woldeyohannes, Solomon Meseret ; Wolfe, Charles D.A. ; Yano, Yuichiro ; Yip, Paul ; Yonemoto, Naohiro ; Yoon, Seok Jun ; Younis, Mustafa Z. ; Yu, Chuanhua ; El Sayed Zaki, Maysaa ; Naghavi, Mohsen ; Murray, Christopher J.L. / Global and national burden of diseases and injuries among children and adolescents between 1990 and 2013 findings from the global burden of disease 2013 study. In: JAMA Pediatrics. 2016 ; Vol. 170, No. 3. pp. 267-287.
@article{4749bc9184354a4fb0293b3a62a6521d,
title = "Global and national burden of diseases and injuries among children and adolescents between 1990 and 2013 findings from the global burden of disease 2013 study",
abstract = "IMPORTANCE: The literature focuses on mortality among children younger than 5 years. Comparable information on nonfatal health outcomes among these children and the fatal and nonfatal burden of diseases and injuries among older children and adolescents is scarce. OBJECTIVE: To determine levels and trends in the fatal and nonfatal burden of diseases and injuries among younger children (aged < 5 years), older children (aged 5-9 years), and adolescents (aged 10-19 years) between 1990 and 2013 in 188 countries from the Global Burden of Disease (GBD) 2013 study. EVIDENCE REVIEW: Data from vital registration, verbal autopsy studies, maternal and child death surveillance, and other sources covering 14 244 site-years (ie, years of cause of death data by geography) from 1980 through 2013 were used to estimate cause-specific mortality. Data from 35 620 epidemiological sources were used to estimate the prevalence of the diseases and sequelae in the GBD 2013 study. Cause-specific mortality for most causes was estimated using the Cause of Death Ensemble Model strategy. For some infectious diseases (eg, HIVinfection/AIDS, measles, hepatitis B) where the disease process is complex or the cause of death data were insufficient or unavailable, we used natural history models. For most nonfatal health outcomes, DisMod-MR2.0, a Bayesian metaregression tool, was used to meta-analyze the epidemiological data to generate prevalence estimates. FINDINGS: Of the 7.7 (95{\%} uncertainty interval [UI], 7.4-8.1) million deaths among children and adolescents globally in 2013,6.28 million occurred amongyounger children, 0.48 million among older children, and 0.97 million among adolescents. In 2013, the leading causes of death were lower respiratory tract infections amongyounger children (905 059 deaths; 95{\%} UI, 810 304-998125), diarrheal diseases among older children (38 325 deaths; 95{\%} UI, 30 365-47 678), and road injuries among adolescents (115186 deaths; 95{\%} UI, 105185-124 870). Iron deficiency anemia was the leading cause of years lived with disability among children and adolescents, affecting 619 (95{\%} UI, 618-621) million in 2013. Large between-country variations exist in mortality from leading causes among children and adolescents. Countries with rapid declines in all-cause mortality between 1990 and 2013 also experienced large declines in most leading causes of death, whereas countries with the slowest declines had stagnant or increasing trends in the leading causes of death. In 2013, Nigeria had a 12{\%} global share of deaths from lower respiratory tract infections and a 38{\%} global share of deaths from malaria. India had 33{\%} of the world's deaths from neonatal encephalopathy. Half of the world's diarrheal deaths among children and adolescents occurred injust 5 countries: India, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Pakistan, Nigeria, and Ethiopia. CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE: Understanding the levels and trends of the leading causes of death and disability among children and adolescents is critical to guide investment and inform policies. Monitoring these trends over time is also key to understanding where interventions are having an impact. Proven interventions exist to prevent or treat the leading causes of unnecessary death and disability among children and adolescents. The findings presented here show that these are underused and give guidance to policy makers in countries where more attention is needed.",
author = "Theo Vos and Kyu, {Hmwe H.} and Christine Pinho and Wagner, {Joseph A.} and Brown, {Jonathan C.} and Amelia Bertozzi-Villa and Charlson, {Fiona J.} and Coffeng, {Luc Edgar} and Lalit Dandona and Erskine, {Holly E.} and Ferrari, {Alize J.} and Christina Fitzmaurice and Fleming, {Thomas D.} and Forouzanfar, {Mohammad H.} and Nicholas Graetz and Caterina Guinovart and Juanita Haagsma and Hideki Higashi and Kassebaum, {Nicholas J.} and Larson, {Heidi J.} and Lim, {Stephen S.} and Mokdad, {Ali H.} and Maziar Moradi-Lakeh and Odell, {Shaun V.} and Roth, {Gregory A.} and Serina, {Peter T.} and Stanaway, {Jeffrey D.} and Awoke Misganaw and Whiteford, {Harvey A.} and Wolock, {Timothy M.} and Hanson, {Sarah Wulf} and Foad Abd-Allah and Abera, {Semaw Ferede} and Abu-Raddad, {Laith J.} and {Al Buhairan}, {Fadia S.} and Amare, {Azmeraw T.} and Antonio, {Carl Abelardo T.} and Al Artaman and Barker-Collo, {Suzanne L.} and Barrero, {Lope H.} and Corina Benjet and Bensenor, {Isabela M.} and Bhutta, {Zulfiqar A.} and Boris Bikbov and Alexandra Brazinova and Ismael Campos-Nonato and Casta{\~n}eda-Orjuela, {Carlos A.} and Ferr{\'a}n Catal{\'a}-L{\'o}pez and Rajiv Chowdhury and Cyrus Cooper and Crump, {John A.} and Rakhi Dandona and Louisa Degenhardt and Dellavalle, {Robert P.} and Dharmaratne, {Samath D.} and Faraon, {Emerito Jose A.} and Feigin, {Valery L.} and Thomas F{\"u}rst and Geleijnse, {Johanna M.} and Gessner, {Bradford D.} and Gibney, {Katherine B.} and Atsushi Goto and David Gunnell and Hankey, {Graeme J.} and Hay, {Roderick J.} and Hornberger, {John C.} and Hosgood, {H. Dean} and Guoqing Hu and Jacobsen, {Kathryn H.} and Jayaraman, {Sudha P.} and Panniyammakal Jeemon and Jonas, {Jost B.} and Andr{\'e} Karch and Daniel Kim and Sungroul Kim and Yoshihiro Kokubo and Defo, {Barthelemy Kuate} and Bicer, {Burcu Kucuk} and Kumar, {G. Anil} and Anders Larsson and Leasher, {Janet L.} and Ricky Leung and Yongmei Li and Lipshultz, {Steven E.} and Lopez, {Alan D.} and Lotufo, {Paulo A.} and Raimundas Lunevicius and Lyons, {Ronan A.} and Marek Majdan and Reza Malekzadeh and Taufiq Mashal and Mason-Jones, {Amanda J.} and Melaku, {Yohannes Adama} and Memish, {Ziad A.} and Walter Mendoza and Miller, {Ted R.} and Mock, {Charles N.} and Joseph Murray and Sandra Nolte and Oh, {In Hwan} and Olusanya, {Bolajoko Olubukunola} and Ortblad, {Katrina F.} and Park, {Eun Kee} and Caicedo, {Angel J.Paternina} and Patten, {Scott B.} and Patton, {George C.} and Pereira, {David M.} and Norberto Perico and Piel, {Fr{\'e}d{\'e}ric B.} and Suzanne Polinder and Svetlana Popova and Farshad Pourmalek and Quistberg, {D. Alex} and Giuseppe Remuzzi and Alina Rodriguez and David Rojas-Rueda and Dietrich Rothenbacher and Rothstein, {David H.} and Juan Sanabria and Santos, {Itamar S.} and Schwebel, {David C.} and Sepanlou, {Sadaf G.} and Amira Shaheen and Rahman Shiri and Ivy Shiue and Vegard Skirbekk and Karen Sliwa and Sreeramareddy, {Chandrashekhar T.} and Stein, {Dan J.} and Steiner, {Timothy J.} and Stovner, {Lars Jacob} and Sykes, {Bryan L.} and Tabb, {Karen M.} and Terkawi, {Abdullah Sulieman} and Thomson, {Alan J.} and Andrew Thorne-Lyman and Towbin, {Jeffrey Allen} and Ukwaja, {Kingsley Nnanna} and Tommi Vasankari and Narayanaswamy Venketasubramanian and Vlassov, {Vasiliy Victorovich} and Vollset, {Stein Emil} and Elisabete Weiderpass and Weintraub, {Robert G.} and Andrea Werdecker and Wilkinson, {James D.} and Woldeyohannes, {Solomon Meseret} and Wolfe, {Charles D.A.} and Yuichiro Yano and Paul Yip and Naohiro Yonemoto and Yoon, {Seok Jun} and Younis, {Mustafa Z.} and Chuanhua Yu and {El Sayed Zaki}, Maysaa and Mohsen Naghavi and Murray, {Christopher J.L.}",
year = "2016",
month = "3",
day = "1",
doi = "10.1001/jamapediatrics.2015.4276",
language = "English (US)",
volume = "170",
pages = "267--287",
journal = "JAMA Pediatrics",
issn = "2168-6203",
publisher = "American Medical Association",
number = "3",

}

TY - JOUR

T1 - Global and national burden of diseases and injuries among children and adolescents between 1990 and 2013 findings from the global burden of disease 2013 study

AU - Vos, Theo

AU - Kyu, Hmwe H.

AU - Pinho, Christine

AU - Wagner, Joseph A.

AU - Brown, Jonathan C.

AU - Bertozzi-Villa, Amelia

AU - Charlson, Fiona J.

AU - Coffeng, Luc Edgar

AU - Dandona, Lalit

AU - Erskine, Holly E.

AU - Ferrari, Alize J.

AU - Fitzmaurice, Christina

AU - Fleming, Thomas D.

AU - Forouzanfar, Mohammad H.

AU - Graetz, Nicholas

AU - Guinovart, Caterina

AU - Haagsma, Juanita

AU - Higashi, Hideki

AU - Kassebaum, Nicholas J.

AU - Larson, Heidi J.

AU - Lim, Stephen S.

AU - Mokdad, Ali H.

AU - Moradi-Lakeh, Maziar

AU - Odell, Shaun V.

AU - Roth, Gregory A.

AU - Serina, Peter T.

AU - Stanaway, Jeffrey D.

AU - Misganaw, Awoke

AU - Whiteford, Harvey A.

AU - Wolock, Timothy M.

AU - Hanson, Sarah Wulf

AU - Abd-Allah, Foad

AU - Abera, Semaw Ferede

AU - Abu-Raddad, Laith J.

AU - Al Buhairan, Fadia S.

AU - Amare, Azmeraw T.

AU - Antonio, Carl Abelardo T.

AU - Artaman, Al

AU - Barker-Collo, Suzanne L.

AU - Barrero, Lope H.

AU - Benjet, Corina

AU - Bensenor, Isabela M.

AU - Bhutta, Zulfiqar A.

AU - Bikbov, Boris

AU - Brazinova, Alexandra

AU - Campos-Nonato, Ismael

AU - Castañeda-Orjuela, Carlos A.

AU - Catalá-López, Ferrán

AU - Chowdhury, Rajiv

AU - Cooper, Cyrus

AU - Crump, John A.

AU - Dandona, Rakhi

AU - Degenhardt, Louisa

AU - Dellavalle, Robert P.

AU - Dharmaratne, Samath D.

AU - Faraon, Emerito Jose A.

AU - Feigin, Valery L.

AU - Fürst, Thomas

AU - Geleijnse, Johanna M.

AU - Gessner, Bradford D.

AU - Gibney, Katherine B.

AU - Goto, Atsushi

AU - Gunnell, David

AU - Hankey, Graeme J.

AU - Hay, Roderick J.

AU - Hornberger, John C.

AU - Hosgood, H. Dean

AU - Hu, Guoqing

AU - Jacobsen, Kathryn H.

AU - Jayaraman, Sudha P.

AU - Jeemon, Panniyammakal

AU - Jonas, Jost B.

AU - Karch, André

AU - Kim, Daniel

AU - Kim, Sungroul

AU - Kokubo, Yoshihiro

AU - Defo, Barthelemy Kuate

AU - Bicer, Burcu Kucuk

AU - Kumar, G. Anil

AU - Larsson, Anders

AU - Leasher, Janet L.

AU - Leung, Ricky

AU - Li, Yongmei

AU - Lipshultz, Steven E.

AU - Lopez, Alan D.

AU - Lotufo, Paulo A.

AU - Lunevicius, Raimundas

AU - Lyons, Ronan A.

AU - Majdan, Marek

AU - Malekzadeh, Reza

AU - Mashal, Taufiq

AU - Mason-Jones, Amanda J.

AU - Melaku, Yohannes Adama

AU - Memish, Ziad A.

AU - Mendoza, Walter

AU - Miller, Ted R.

AU - Mock, Charles N.

AU - Murray, Joseph

AU - Nolte, Sandra

AU - Oh, In Hwan

AU - Olusanya, Bolajoko Olubukunola

AU - Ortblad, Katrina F.

AU - Park, Eun Kee

AU - Caicedo, Angel J.Paternina

AU - Patten, Scott B.

AU - Patton, George C.

AU - Pereira, David M.

AU - Perico, Norberto

AU - Piel, Frédéric B.

AU - Polinder, Suzanne

AU - Popova, Svetlana

AU - Pourmalek, Farshad

AU - Quistberg, D. Alex

AU - Remuzzi, Giuseppe

AU - Rodriguez, Alina

AU - Rojas-Rueda, David

AU - Rothenbacher, Dietrich

AU - Rothstein, David H.

AU - Sanabria, Juan

AU - Santos, Itamar S.

AU - Schwebel, David C.

AU - Sepanlou, Sadaf G.

AU - Shaheen, Amira

AU - Shiri, Rahman

AU - Shiue, Ivy

AU - Skirbekk, Vegard

AU - Sliwa, Karen

AU - Sreeramareddy, Chandrashekhar T.

AU - Stein, Dan J.

AU - Steiner, Timothy J.

AU - Stovner, Lars Jacob

AU - Sykes, Bryan L.

AU - Tabb, Karen M.

AU - Terkawi, Abdullah Sulieman

AU - Thomson, Alan J.

AU - Thorne-Lyman, Andrew

AU - Towbin, Jeffrey Allen

AU - Ukwaja, Kingsley Nnanna

AU - Vasankari, Tommi

AU - Venketasubramanian, Narayanaswamy

AU - Vlassov, Vasiliy Victorovich

AU - Vollset, Stein Emil

AU - Weiderpass, Elisabete

AU - Weintraub, Robert G.

AU - Werdecker, Andrea

AU - Wilkinson, James D.

AU - Woldeyohannes, Solomon Meseret

AU - Wolfe, Charles D.A.

AU - Yano, Yuichiro

AU - Yip, Paul

AU - Yonemoto, Naohiro

AU - Yoon, Seok Jun

AU - Younis, Mustafa Z.

AU - Yu, Chuanhua

AU - El Sayed Zaki, Maysaa

AU - Naghavi, Mohsen

AU - Murray, Christopher J.L.

PY - 2016/3/1

Y1 - 2016/3/1

N2 - IMPORTANCE: The literature focuses on mortality among children younger than 5 years. Comparable information on nonfatal health outcomes among these children and the fatal and nonfatal burden of diseases and injuries among older children and adolescents is scarce. OBJECTIVE: To determine levels and trends in the fatal and nonfatal burden of diseases and injuries among younger children (aged < 5 years), older children (aged 5-9 years), and adolescents (aged 10-19 years) between 1990 and 2013 in 188 countries from the Global Burden of Disease (GBD) 2013 study. EVIDENCE REVIEW: Data from vital registration, verbal autopsy studies, maternal and child death surveillance, and other sources covering 14 244 site-years (ie, years of cause of death data by geography) from 1980 through 2013 were used to estimate cause-specific mortality. Data from 35 620 epidemiological sources were used to estimate the prevalence of the diseases and sequelae in the GBD 2013 study. Cause-specific mortality for most causes was estimated using the Cause of Death Ensemble Model strategy. For some infectious diseases (eg, HIVinfection/AIDS, measles, hepatitis B) where the disease process is complex or the cause of death data were insufficient or unavailable, we used natural history models. For most nonfatal health outcomes, DisMod-MR2.0, a Bayesian metaregression tool, was used to meta-analyze the epidemiological data to generate prevalence estimates. FINDINGS: Of the 7.7 (95% uncertainty interval [UI], 7.4-8.1) million deaths among children and adolescents globally in 2013,6.28 million occurred amongyounger children, 0.48 million among older children, and 0.97 million among adolescents. In 2013, the leading causes of death were lower respiratory tract infections amongyounger children (905 059 deaths; 95% UI, 810 304-998125), diarrheal diseases among older children (38 325 deaths; 95% UI, 30 365-47 678), and road injuries among adolescents (115186 deaths; 95% UI, 105185-124 870). Iron deficiency anemia was the leading cause of years lived with disability among children and adolescents, affecting 619 (95% UI, 618-621) million in 2013. Large between-country variations exist in mortality from leading causes among children and adolescents. Countries with rapid declines in all-cause mortality between 1990 and 2013 also experienced large declines in most leading causes of death, whereas countries with the slowest declines had stagnant or increasing trends in the leading causes of death. In 2013, Nigeria had a 12% global share of deaths from lower respiratory tract infections and a 38% global share of deaths from malaria. India had 33% of the world's deaths from neonatal encephalopathy. Half of the world's diarrheal deaths among children and adolescents occurred injust 5 countries: India, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Pakistan, Nigeria, and Ethiopia. CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE: Understanding the levels and trends of the leading causes of death and disability among children and adolescents is critical to guide investment and inform policies. Monitoring these trends over time is also key to understanding where interventions are having an impact. Proven interventions exist to prevent or treat the leading causes of unnecessary death and disability among children and adolescents. The findings presented here show that these are underused and give guidance to policy makers in countries where more attention is needed.

AB - IMPORTANCE: The literature focuses on mortality among children younger than 5 years. Comparable information on nonfatal health outcomes among these children and the fatal and nonfatal burden of diseases and injuries among older children and adolescents is scarce. OBJECTIVE: To determine levels and trends in the fatal and nonfatal burden of diseases and injuries among younger children (aged < 5 years), older children (aged 5-9 years), and adolescents (aged 10-19 years) between 1990 and 2013 in 188 countries from the Global Burden of Disease (GBD) 2013 study. EVIDENCE REVIEW: Data from vital registration, verbal autopsy studies, maternal and child death surveillance, and other sources covering 14 244 site-years (ie, years of cause of death data by geography) from 1980 through 2013 were used to estimate cause-specific mortality. Data from 35 620 epidemiological sources were used to estimate the prevalence of the diseases and sequelae in the GBD 2013 study. Cause-specific mortality for most causes was estimated using the Cause of Death Ensemble Model strategy. For some infectious diseases (eg, HIVinfection/AIDS, measles, hepatitis B) where the disease process is complex or the cause of death data were insufficient or unavailable, we used natural history models. For most nonfatal health outcomes, DisMod-MR2.0, a Bayesian metaregression tool, was used to meta-analyze the epidemiological data to generate prevalence estimates. FINDINGS: Of the 7.7 (95% uncertainty interval [UI], 7.4-8.1) million deaths among children and adolescents globally in 2013,6.28 million occurred amongyounger children, 0.48 million among older children, and 0.97 million among adolescents. In 2013, the leading causes of death were lower respiratory tract infections amongyounger children (905 059 deaths; 95% UI, 810 304-998125), diarrheal diseases among older children (38 325 deaths; 95% UI, 30 365-47 678), and road injuries among adolescents (115186 deaths; 95% UI, 105185-124 870). Iron deficiency anemia was the leading cause of years lived with disability among children and adolescents, affecting 619 (95% UI, 618-621) million in 2013. Large between-country variations exist in mortality from leading causes among children and adolescents. Countries with rapid declines in all-cause mortality between 1990 and 2013 also experienced large declines in most leading causes of death, whereas countries with the slowest declines had stagnant or increasing trends in the leading causes of death. In 2013, Nigeria had a 12% global share of deaths from lower respiratory tract infections and a 38% global share of deaths from malaria. India had 33% of the world's deaths from neonatal encephalopathy. Half of the world's diarrheal deaths among children and adolescents occurred injust 5 countries: India, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Pakistan, Nigeria, and Ethiopia. CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE: Understanding the levels and trends of the leading causes of death and disability among children and adolescents is critical to guide investment and inform policies. Monitoring these trends over time is also key to understanding where interventions are having an impact. Proven interventions exist to prevent or treat the leading causes of unnecessary death and disability among children and adolescents. The findings presented here show that these are underused and give guidance to policy makers in countries where more attention is needed.

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U2 - 10.1001/jamapediatrics.2015.4276

DO - 10.1001/jamapediatrics.2015.4276

M3 - Review article

C2 - 26810619

AN - SCOPUS:84962415067

VL - 170

SP - 267

EP - 287

JO - JAMA Pediatrics

JF - JAMA Pediatrics

SN - 2168-6203

IS - 3

ER -