Scott B. Citino, Mitchell Bush

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingChapter

4 Scopus citations


Giraffids were once very diverse and widespread throughout Africa, Asia, and Europe. Presently, only two genera with one species per genera are extant within the family Giraffidae: the giraffe, Giraffa camelopardalis, and the okapi, Okapia johnstoni. The art and science of the giraffe anesthesia remains a challenge due to their unique anatomy and physiology, which presents inherent risks during chemical restraint and, consequently, can result in unacceptable morbidity or mortality. The most commonly used drugs for analgesia in the giraffids are nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs). Flunixin meglumine (IV, IM, or PO, 1.0-2.0 mg/kg SID), phenylbutazone (PO, 1.0-3.0 mg/ kg SID to BID), and ketoprofen (IV or IM, 0.5 to 2.0 mg/ kg SID). This chapter discusses physical and mechanical restraint, endotracheal intubation, sedation and tranquilization and anesthesia of the giraffids.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Title of host publicationZoo Animal and Wildlife Immobilization and Anesthesia
Subtitle of host publicationSecond Edition
Number of pages13
ISBN (Electronic)9781118792919
ISBN (Print)9780813811833
StatePublished - Sep 15 2014


  • Anesthesia
  • Endotracheal intubation
  • Giraffids
  • Sedation
  • Tranquilization

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • veterinary(all)


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