Oculomotor nerve paresis, ocular hypotony, anterior segment ischemia, and the ocular ischemic syndrome are uncommon manifestations of giant cell arteritis. Four patients with these findings had giant cell arteritis documented by temporal artery biopsy. Cerebral angiography or ultrasonography, or both, performed in three patients, excluded hemodynamically significant stenosis of the internal carotid artery as the cause of ocular ischemia and cerebral aneurysms as the cause of oculomotor nerve paresis. Corticosteroid treatment, administered to three patients, resulted in resolution of the oculomotor deficits and the clinical signs of ocular ischemia, although the visual acuity in one patient improved from 20/400 to 20/60. Giant cell arteritis should be considered in the differential diagnosis of the ocular ischemic syndrome.
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