Purpose: In patients undergoing stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) for pancreatic adenocarcinoma, the reproducibility of tumor positioning between deep-inspiration breath holds is unclear. We characterized this variation with fiducials at simulation and treatment and investigated whether a patient-specific breath-hold (PSBH) margin would help account for intrafraction variation at treatment. Methods and Materials: We analyzed 20 consecutive patients with pancreatic cancer who underwent SBRT with deep-inspiration breath holds. At simulation, 3 additional breath-hold scans were acquired immediately after the contrast-enhanced planning computed tomography (CT) scan and used to quantify the mean and maximum variations in the simulation fiducial position (Sim_Varavg and Sim_Varmax), as well as to design the internal target volume (ITV) incorporating a PSBH margin. Results: At treatment, a mean of 5 breath-hold cone beam CT (CBCT) scans were acquired per fraction for each patient to quantify the mean and maximum variations in the treatment fiducial position (Tx_Varavg and Tx_Varmax). Various planning target volume (PTV) margins on the gross tumor volume (GTV) versus ITV were evaluated using CBCT scans, with the goal of >95% of fiducials being covered at treatment. The Sim_Varavg and Sim_Varmax were 0.9 ± 0.5 mm and 1.5 ± 0.8 mm in the left-right (LR) direction, 0.9 ± 0.4 mm and 1.4 ± 0.4 mm in the anteroposterior (AP) direction, and 1.5 ± 0.9 mm and 2.1 ± 1.0 mm in the superoinferior (SI) direction, respectively. The Tx_Varavg and Tx_Varmax were 1.2 ± 0.4 mm and 2.0 ± 0.7 mm in the LR direction, 1.1 ± 0.4 mm and 1.8 ± 0.6 mm in the AP direction, and 1.9 ± 1.0 mm and 3.1 ± 1.4 mm in the SI direction, respectively. The ITV was increased by 21.0% ± 8.6% compared with the GTV alone. The PTV margin necessary to encompass >95% of the fiducial locations was 2 mm versus 4 mm in both LR and AP and 4 mm versus 6 mm in SI for the ITV and the GTV, respectively. Conclusions: The interbreath-hold variation is not insignificant, especially in the SI direction. Acquiring multiple breath-hold CT scans at simulation can help quantify the reproducibility of the interbreath hold and design a PSBH margin for treatment.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Radiology Nuclear Medicine and imaging