Genotypic HIV-1 Drug Resistance among Patients Failing Tenofovir-Based First-Line HAART in South India

Thongadi Ramesh Dinesha, Selvamurthi Gomathi, Jayaseelan Boobalan, Sathasivam Sivamalar, Sunil S. Solomon, Ambrose Pradeep, Selvamuthu Poongulali, Suniti Solomon, Pachamuthu Balakrishnan, Shanmugam Saravanan

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

7 Scopus citations


According to 2013 WHO guidelines, tenofovir (TDF) is the preferred first-line regimen for adults and adolescents. A total of 167 HIV-1-infected patients attaining immunological failure after TDF-based first-line HAART were included in this study, RT region of HIV-1 pol gene was sequenced for them, IAS-USA 2014 list and Stanford HIV drug resistance database were used for mutation interpretation. REGA V3.0 was used for HIV subtyping. The predominant NRTI and NNRTI mutations observed were M184IV (59.9%), K65R (28.1%), and thymidine analogue mutations (TAMs, 29.3%) and K103NS (54.5%), V106AM (39.5%), and Y181CIV (19.8%), respectively. Mutational association shows, K65R was negatively associated with TAMs (OR 0.31, p .008), M184V (OR 0.14, p .57), and K70E (OR 0.29, p .02). Genotypically predicted level of drug resistance based on mutation pattern shows 88% can be opted for azidothymidine (AZT) and still 65% can be opted for TDF. Considering the nature of K65R mutation in increasing susceptibility to AZT and its low prevalence, we conclude that in most patients failing TDF-based first-line therapy, AZT can be considered for second-line therapy followed by TDF itself.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)1234-1236
Number of pages3
JournalAIDS research and human retroviruses
Issue number12
StatePublished - Dec 1 2016


  • K65R
  • NRTI
  • TDF
  • first-line
  • immunological failure

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Immunology
  • Virology
  • Infectious Diseases


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