PURPOSE Ductal prostate cancer (dPC) is a rare variant of prostatic adenocarcinoma associated with poor outcomes. Although its histopathologic features are well characterized, the underlying molecular hallmarks of this aggressive subtype are not well described. We sought to provide a comprehensive overview of the spectrum of mutations associated with dPC. METHODS Three case series across multiple institutions were assembled. All patients had a diagnosis of dPC, and histopathologic classification was confirmed by an expert genitourinary pathologist. Case series 1 included men who were prospectively enrolled in a tumor sequencing study at the University of Washington (n = 22). Case series 2 and 3 included archival samples from men treated at Johns Hopkins Hospital (n = 21) and University of Calgary (n = 8), respectively. Tumor tissue was sequenced on a targeted next-generation sequencing assay, UW-OncoPlex, according to previously published methods. The frequency of pathogenic/likely pathogenic mutations are reported. RESULTS Overall, 25 patients (49%) had at least one DNA damage repair gene alteration, including seven (14%) with a mismatch repair gene mutation and 16 (31%) with a homologous repair mutation. Germline autosomal dominant mutations were confirmed or suspected in 10 patients (20%). Activating mutations in the PI3K pathway (n = 19; 37%), WNT pathway (n = 16; 31%), and MAPK pathway (n = 8; 16%) were common. CONCLUSION This study strongly suggests that dPCs are enriched for actionable mutations, with approximately 50% of patients demonstrating DNA damage repair pathway alteration(s). Patients with dPC should be offered next-generation sequencing to guide standard-of-care treatment (eg, immune checkpoint inhibitors) or triaged toward an appropriate clinical trial (eg, poly [ADP-ribose] polymerase inhibitors).
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Cancer Research