We present the distribution of CYP2D6, CYP2C9, and CYP2C19 variants and predicted phenotypes in 33 native and admixed populations from Ibero-America (n > 6,000) in the context of genetic ancestry (n = 3,387). Continental ancestries are the major determinants of frequencies of the increased-activity allele CYP2C19*17 and CYP2C19 gUMs (negatively associated with Native American ancestry), decreased-activity alleles CYP2D6*41 and CYP2C9*2 (positively associated with European ancestry), and decreased-activity alleles CYP2D6*17 and CYP2D6*29 (positively associated with African ancestry). For the rare alleles, CYP2C9*2 and CYPC19*17, European admixture accounts for their presence in Native American populations, but rare alleles CYP2D6*5 (null-activity), CYP2D6-multiplication alleles (increased activity), and CYP2C9*3 (decreased-activity) were present in the pre-Columbian Americas. The study of a broad spectrum of Native American populations from different ethno-linguistic groups show how autochthonous diversity shaped the distribution of pharmaco-alleles and give insights on the prevalence of clinically relevant phenotypes associated with drugs, such as paroxetine, tamoxifen, warfarin, and clopidogrel.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Pharmacology (medical)