The renin-angiotensin system (RAS) regulates BP and may affect chronic kidney disease (CKD) through induction of tissue growth and fibrosis. The angiotensinogen (AGT) promoter G(-6) allele lowers transcription and is inversely associated with hypertension. In white individuals, the A1166C 3′-UTR variant of angiotensin II type 1 receptor (AT1R) has been associated with CKD. CKD associations with these RAS genes are uncertain in high-risk black populations. A prospective population-based study of CKD risk was conducted among 3706 black individuals without severe renal dysfunction at baseline (serum creatinine ≥177 μmol/L [2.0 mg/dl] for men, ≥159 μmol/L [1.8 mg/dl] for women) to examine associations with AGT and AT1R. Incident CKD progression was defined as kidney disease hospitalization or increase in serum creatinine level ≥35 μmol/L (0.4 mg/dl) above baseline. During mean follow-up of 10.2 yr, CKD progression incidence rate (per 1000 person-years) was 8.2 (n = 312 cases). Risk was lower for AGT G(-6) carriers compared with A(-6) (incidence 6.9 versus 9.0; log-rank P = 0.03) and nonsignificantly higher among AT1R C1166 carriers. Adjusting for hypertension and major CKD risk factors, AGT G(-6)decreased risk (relative risk 0.75; 95% confidence interval 0.57 to 0.98). AT1R C1166 increased risk only among those with hypertension (relative risk 1.65; 95% confidence interval 1.14 to 2.39). The AGT G(-6)A polymorphism may play a role in CKD progression in black individuals, consistent with in vitro effects on AGT levels and renal remodeling but independent of BP. The AT1R C1166 allele may increase susceptibility but only in the presence of hypertension.
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