Gender, social support, and posttraumatic stress in postwar Kosovo

Jennifer Ahern, Sandra Galea, William G. Fernandez, Bajram Koci, Ronald Waldman, David Vlahov

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


    The effects of social support and traumatic experiences on mental health in conflict situations may be different by gender. The Kosovo Emergency Department Study was conducted in July and August 2001 to assess mental health 2 years after the end of the war in Kosovo. Of 306 emergency department patients (87.7% response rate), all were ethnic Albanian, 97.4% had experienced traumatic events, and 89.5% had posttraumatic stress symptoms. Women and persons who experienced more traumatic events had higher posttraumatic stress scores. Persons with social support had lower posttraumatic stress scores. In a final model, social support had a greater protective effect for women, whereas traumatic events had a greater detrimental effect on men. Two years after the war in Kosovo, there remained a high prevalence of posttraumatic stress symptoms, particularly among women with low social support. Interventions targeting social support may be important public health efforts in the postwar context.

    Original languageEnglish (US)
    Pages (from-to)762-770
    Number of pages9
    JournalJournal of Nervous and Mental Disease
    Issue number11
    StatePublished - Nov 2004


    • Gender
    • Kosovo
    • Posttraumatic stress
    • Social support
    • Trauma
    • War

    ASJC Scopus subject areas

    • Psychiatry and Mental health

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