Gender Identity, Hormone Therapy, and Cardiovascular Disease Risk

Claudia Martinez, Rishi Rikhi, Tahir Haque, Amara Fazal, Michael Kolber, Barry E. Hurwitz, Neil Schneiderman, Todd T. Brown

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review


Transgender individuals represent a medically underserved and under researched population. There is a growing number of studies illustrating the importance of hormone therapy treatments in transgender men and women to assist ameliorating gender dysphoria and promoting well-being. However, the cardiovascular effects of these hormones are controversial. Large longitudinal epidemiological studies of cardiovascular event outcomes in these populations do not exist. In addition, studies of cardiovascular complications of transgender hormone therapy are limited in number and complicated by poor control of medication regimen, presence of gender confirming surgery, use of prescribed medications for prevailing conditions, and alcohol, smoking or illicit substance use, and comorbidities, such as HIV infection. The following provides an overview of current guidelines for hormone therapy regimens used by transgender individuals, as well as what is known about the use of exogenous hormones on the cardiovascular system and cardiovascular disease risk. Several gaps in our understanding of the cardiovascular effects of endogenous and exogenous hormones in treated transgender individuals are identified, which provide direction for future study.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number100396
JournalCurrent Problems in Cardiology
Issue number5
StatePublished - May 2020

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine


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