Gender differences in criminality: Bipolar disorder with co-occurring substance abuse

Susan Hatters Friedman, Melvin D. Shelton, Omar Elhaj, Erik A. Youngstrom, Daniel J. Rapport, Kristene A. Packer, Sarah R. Bilali, Kelly Sak Jackson, Heather E. Sakai, Phillip J. Resnick, Robert L. Findling, Joseph R. Calabrese

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

27 Scopus citations


Outpatient interviews to collect criminal history data were conducted with 55 women and 77 men who had the dual diagnosis of rapid-cycling bipolar disorder with co-morbid substance abuse disorders (DD-RCBD), to ascertain gender-related similarities and differences. Fifty-three percent of women and 79 percent of men reported that they had been charged with a crime, and nearly half of those charged had been incarcerated. Men with DD-RCBD were more likely to have committed a felony and had a trend of committing more misdemeanors. Although women with DD-RCBD were less likely to have a criminal history than their male counterparts, they were far more likely to have a criminal history than were women in the general population. Implications from this pilot study include the need for earlier identification of bipolar disorder and for the increased availability of psychiatric and substance abuse services within correctional facilities.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)188-195
Number of pages8
JournalJournal of the American Academy of Psychiatry and the Law
Issue number2
StatePublished - Aug 1 2005
Externally publishedYes

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Pathology and Forensic Medicine
  • Psychiatry and Mental health


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