Gender and Race Variations in the Intersection of Religious Involvement, Early Trauma, and Adult Health

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Abstract

Purpose: This study aimed to determine gender and race variations in regards to the influence of religious involvement (RI) as a moderator of the effects of early traumatic stress (ETS) on health-related quality of life among adult survivors of child abuse. Design: A cross-sectional predictive design was used to study Seventh-day Adventist adults in North America (N = 10,283). Methods: A secondary analysis of data collected via questionnaires was done using multiple regression. Results: Data revealed that women had a significantly higher prevalence of any or all ETS subtypes, except for physical abuse prevalence, which was the same for both genders. Blacks reported a significantly higher prevalence of at least one ETS subtype than did Whites, except for neglect, where Whites had a higher prevalence. Exposure to at least one ETS subtype was associated with worse negative effect on mental health (B = -2.08, p <.0001 vs. B = -1.54, p <.0001) and physical health (B = -2.01, p <.0001 vs. B = -1.11, p <.0001) for women compared to men. Among those exposed to all ETS subtypes (n = 447), Whites had significant worse physical health, with White women having almost two times the negative effect on physical health (B = -4.50, p <.0001) than White men (B = -2.87, p <.05). As for RI moderation, based on tests of three-way interactions of race-RI-ETS, there were no associated differences. However, tests of three-way interactions of gender-RI-ETS showed a significant buffering effect. Among those with high levels of negative religious coping (RC), women exposed to ETS had significantly worse physical health (B = -1.28) than men. Conclusions: Results give evidence of gender and racial differences on the magnitude of the ETS-health effect, as well as gender differences in ETS-health buffering by RC. Clinical Relevance: Findings suggest gender and racial differences must be considered when devising holistic nursing interventions for improving health outcomes of early trauma survivors.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)318-327
Number of pages10
JournalJournal of Nursing Scholarship
Volume47
Issue number4
DOIs
StatePublished - Jul 1 2015

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Health
Wounds and Injuries
Adult Survivors of Child Abuse
Holistic Nursing
North America
Survivors
Mental Health
Quality of Life

Keywords

  • Adventists
  • Child abuse
  • Community health
  • Cultural diversity
  • Culture
  • Forgiveness
  • Gender differences
  • Gratitude
  • Health disparities
  • Mental health
  • Neglect
  • Public health
  • Religious coping
  • Religious involvement
  • Spirituality
  • Trauma
  • Violence

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Nursing(all)

Cite this

@article{238ba41f2dd34c698a9124c22168df1c,
title = "Gender and Race Variations in the Intersection of Religious Involvement, Early Trauma, and Adult Health",
abstract = "Purpose: This study aimed to determine gender and race variations in regards to the influence of religious involvement (RI) as a moderator of the effects of early traumatic stress (ETS) on health-related quality of life among adult survivors of child abuse. Design: A cross-sectional predictive design was used to study Seventh-day Adventist adults in North America (N = 10,283). Methods: A secondary analysis of data collected via questionnaires was done using multiple regression. Results: Data revealed that women had a significantly higher prevalence of any or all ETS subtypes, except for physical abuse prevalence, which was the same for both genders. Blacks reported a significantly higher prevalence of at least one ETS subtype than did Whites, except for neglect, where Whites had a higher prevalence. Exposure to at least one ETS subtype was associated with worse negative effect on mental health (B = -2.08, p <.0001 vs. B = -1.54, p <.0001) and physical health (B = -2.01, p <.0001 vs. B = -1.11, p <.0001) for women compared to men. Among those exposed to all ETS subtypes (n = 447), Whites had significant worse physical health, with White women having almost two times the negative effect on physical health (B = -4.50, p <.0001) than White men (B = -2.87, p <.05). As for RI moderation, based on tests of three-way interactions of race-RI-ETS, there were no associated differences. However, tests of three-way interactions of gender-RI-ETS showed a significant buffering effect. Among those with high levels of negative religious coping (RC), women exposed to ETS had significantly worse physical health (B = -1.28) than men. Conclusions: Results give evidence of gender and racial differences on the magnitude of the ETS-health effect, as well as gender differences in ETS-health buffering by RC. Clinical Relevance: Findings suggest gender and racial differences must be considered when devising holistic nursing interventions for improving health outcomes of early trauma survivors.",
keywords = "Adventists, Child abuse, Community health, Cultural diversity, Culture, Forgiveness, Gender differences, Gratitude, Health disparities, Mental health, Neglect, Public health, Religious coping, Religious involvement, Spirituality, Trauma, Violence",
author = "Reinert, {Katia G.} and Campbell, {Jacquelyn C} and {Bandeen Roche}, {Karen J} and Sharps, {Phyllis W} and Jerry Lee",
year = "2015",
month = "7",
day = "1",
doi = "10.1111/jnu.12144",
language = "English (US)",
volume = "47",
pages = "318--327",
journal = "Journal of Nursing Scholarship",
issn = "1527-6546",
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}

TY - JOUR

T1 - Gender and Race Variations in the Intersection of Religious Involvement, Early Trauma, and Adult Health

AU - Reinert, Katia G.

AU - Campbell, Jacquelyn C

AU - Bandeen Roche, Karen J

AU - Sharps, Phyllis W

AU - Lee, Jerry

PY - 2015/7/1

Y1 - 2015/7/1

N2 - Purpose: This study aimed to determine gender and race variations in regards to the influence of religious involvement (RI) as a moderator of the effects of early traumatic stress (ETS) on health-related quality of life among adult survivors of child abuse. Design: A cross-sectional predictive design was used to study Seventh-day Adventist adults in North America (N = 10,283). Methods: A secondary analysis of data collected via questionnaires was done using multiple regression. Results: Data revealed that women had a significantly higher prevalence of any or all ETS subtypes, except for physical abuse prevalence, which was the same for both genders. Blacks reported a significantly higher prevalence of at least one ETS subtype than did Whites, except for neglect, where Whites had a higher prevalence. Exposure to at least one ETS subtype was associated with worse negative effect on mental health (B = -2.08, p <.0001 vs. B = -1.54, p <.0001) and physical health (B = -2.01, p <.0001 vs. B = -1.11, p <.0001) for women compared to men. Among those exposed to all ETS subtypes (n = 447), Whites had significant worse physical health, with White women having almost two times the negative effect on physical health (B = -4.50, p <.0001) than White men (B = -2.87, p <.05). As for RI moderation, based on tests of three-way interactions of race-RI-ETS, there were no associated differences. However, tests of three-way interactions of gender-RI-ETS showed a significant buffering effect. Among those with high levels of negative religious coping (RC), women exposed to ETS had significantly worse physical health (B = -1.28) than men. Conclusions: Results give evidence of gender and racial differences on the magnitude of the ETS-health effect, as well as gender differences in ETS-health buffering by RC. Clinical Relevance: Findings suggest gender and racial differences must be considered when devising holistic nursing interventions for improving health outcomes of early trauma survivors.

AB - Purpose: This study aimed to determine gender and race variations in regards to the influence of religious involvement (RI) as a moderator of the effects of early traumatic stress (ETS) on health-related quality of life among adult survivors of child abuse. Design: A cross-sectional predictive design was used to study Seventh-day Adventist adults in North America (N = 10,283). Methods: A secondary analysis of data collected via questionnaires was done using multiple regression. Results: Data revealed that women had a significantly higher prevalence of any or all ETS subtypes, except for physical abuse prevalence, which was the same for both genders. Blacks reported a significantly higher prevalence of at least one ETS subtype than did Whites, except for neglect, where Whites had a higher prevalence. Exposure to at least one ETS subtype was associated with worse negative effect on mental health (B = -2.08, p <.0001 vs. B = -1.54, p <.0001) and physical health (B = -2.01, p <.0001 vs. B = -1.11, p <.0001) for women compared to men. Among those exposed to all ETS subtypes (n = 447), Whites had significant worse physical health, with White women having almost two times the negative effect on physical health (B = -4.50, p <.0001) than White men (B = -2.87, p <.05). As for RI moderation, based on tests of three-way interactions of race-RI-ETS, there were no associated differences. However, tests of three-way interactions of gender-RI-ETS showed a significant buffering effect. Among those with high levels of negative religious coping (RC), women exposed to ETS had significantly worse physical health (B = -1.28) than men. Conclusions: Results give evidence of gender and racial differences on the magnitude of the ETS-health effect, as well as gender differences in ETS-health buffering by RC. Clinical Relevance: Findings suggest gender and racial differences must be considered when devising holistic nursing interventions for improving health outcomes of early trauma survivors.

KW - Adventists

KW - Child abuse

KW - Community health

KW - Cultural diversity

KW - Culture

KW - Forgiveness

KW - Gender differences

KW - Gratitude

KW - Health disparities

KW - Mental health

KW - Neglect

KW - Public health

KW - Religious coping

KW - Religious involvement

KW - Spirituality

KW - Trauma

KW - Violence

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VL - 47

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