G-FLUA2H: A web-based application to study the dynamics of animal-to-human mutation transmission for influenza viruses

Muhammad Farhan Sjaugi, Swan Tan, Hadia Syahirah Abd Raman, Wan Ching Lim, Nik Elena Nik Mohamed, J. Thomas August, Asif M. Khan

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

3 Scopus citations


g-FLUA2H is a web-based application focused on the analysis of the dynamics of influenza virus animal-to-human (A2H) mutation transmissions. The application only requires the viral protein sequences from both the animal and human host populations as input datasets. The comparative analyses between the co-aligned sequences of the two viral populations is based on a sliding window approach of size nine for statistical significance and data application to the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) and T-cell receptor (TCR) immune response mechanisms. The sequences at each of the aligned overlapping nonamer positions for the respective virus hosts are classified as four patterns of characteristic diversity motifs, as a basis for quantitative analyses: (i) "index", the most prevalent sequence; (ii) "major" variant, the second most common sequence and the single most prevalent variant of the index, with at least one amino acid mutation; (iii) "minor" variants, multiple different sequences, each with an incidence (percent occurrence) less than that of the major variant; and (iv) "unique" variants, each with only one occurrence in the alignment. The diversity motifs and their incidences at each of the nonamer positions allow evaluation of the mutation transmission dynamics and selectivity of the viral sequences in relation to the animal and the human hosts. g-FLUA2H is facilitated by a grid back-end for parallel processing of large sequence datasets. The web-application is publicly available at http://bioinfo.perdanauniversity.edu.my/g-FLUA2H. It can be used for a detailed characterization of the composition and incidence of mutations present in the proteomes of influenza viruses from animal and human host populations, for a better understanding of host tropism.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number570
JournalBMC Medical Genomics
Issue number4
StatePublished - Dec 9 2015


  • animal-to-human transmission
  • influenza viruses
  • mutation

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Genetics
  • Genetics(clinical)


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