Hormone-refractory prostate cancer (HRPC) remains true to its name: it is largely refractory to attempts to delay its progression. Although the number of men presenting with metastatic prostate cancer has decreased significantly over the last several years, the death rate for those men is essentially unchanged. To alter the currently inevitable progression of HRPC to death, new targets and new therapies are needed. This article reviews investigational therapies directed against standard targets (eg, the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis) as well as novel targets (eg, the endothelin axis).
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