Front-of-package claims & imagery on fruit-flavored drinks and exposure by household demographics

Aviva A. Musicus, Sophia V. Hua, Alyssa J. Moran, Emily W. Duffy, Marissa G. Hall, Christina A. Roberto, Francesca R. Dillman Carpentier, Sarah Sorscher, Margo G. Wootan, Lindsey Smith Taillie, Eric B. Rimm

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Young children regularly consume sugary fruit drinks, in part because parents may falsely believe they are healthful due to front-of-package (FOP) claims and imagery. The goal of this study was to assess: 1) the prevalence of FOP claims/imagery on fruit-flavored beverages purchased by U.S. households with 0-5-year-olds, and 2) proportional differences in beverages purchased with FOP claims/imagery across household demographic groups. A content analysis of FOP claims/imagery (e.g., nutrient claims, fruit imagery) on beverages (n = 1365) purchased by households with 0-5-year-olds was conducted by linking beverage sales with FOP marketing data. Results were merged with purchasing data from a nationally representative sample of households (FoodAPS), and survey-weighted logistic regression was used to assess differences in the proportions of 100% juices and fruit drinks with specific FOP claims/imagery purchased by household race/ethnicity, income, and SNAP/WIC participation. The most common claims on fruit-flavored beverages included nutrient claims (fruit drinks: 73%; 100% juices: 68%; flavored waters: 95%), which most commonly highlighted vitamin C (35–41% across beverage categories) and the absence of sugar (31–48%). Most beverages also contained implied-natural claims (fruit drinks: 60%; 100% juices: 64%; flavored waters: 95%) and natural imagery (fruit drinks: 97%; 100% juices: 96%; flavored waters: 73%). A large proportion of fruit drinks and 100% juices purchased by households across all demographic groups contained FOP claims and imagery, with a few minor differences between racial/ethnic groups. In conclusion, most fruit drinks, 100% juices, and flavored waters purchased by households with 0-5-year-olds contained FOP claims and imagery that may lead consumers to believe the beverages are healthy and natural. FDA regulations should ensure parents are not misled by this marketing.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number105902
StatePublished - Apr 1 2022


  • Food labeling
  • Food marketing
  • Front-of-package claims
  • Front-of-package imagery
  • Fruit drinks
  • Health claims

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Psychology(all)
  • Nutrition and Dietetics


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