From storage to manipulation: How the neural correlates of verbal working memory reflect varying demands on inner speech

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Abstract

The ability to store and manipulate online information may be enhanced by an inner speech mechanism that draws upon motor brain regions. Neural correlates of this mechanism were examined using event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Sixteen participants completed two conditions of a verbal working memory task. In both conditions, participants viewed one or two target letters. In the "storage" condition, these targets were held in mind across a delay. Then a probe letter was presented, and participants indicated by button press whether the probe matched the targets. In the "manipulation" condition, participants identified new targets by thinking two alphabetical letters forward of each original target (e.g., f → h). Participants subsequently indicated whether the probe matched the newly derived targets. Brain activity during the storage and manipulation conditions was examined specifically during the delay phase in order to directly compare manipulation versus storage processes. Activations that were common to both conditions, yet disproportionately greater with manipulation, were observed in the left inferior frontal cortex, premotor cortex, and anterior insula, bilaterally in the parietal lobes and superior cerebellum, and in the right inferior cerebellum. This network shares substrates with overt speech and may represent an inner speech pathway that increases activity with greater working memory demands. Additionally, an inverse correlation was observed between manipulation-related brain activity (on correct trials) and test accuracy in the left premotor cortex, anterior insula, and bilateral superior cerebellum. This inverse relationship may represent intensification of inner speech as one struggles to maintain performance levels.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)42-51
Number of pages10
JournalBrain and Language
Volume120
Issue number1
DOIs
StatePublished - Jan 2012

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Short-Term Memory
manipulation
Cerebellum
Motor Cortex
brain
Brain
Parietal Lobe
Aptitude
Frontal Lobe
activation
Magnetic Resonance Imaging
Manipulation
Verbal Working Memory
Neural Correlates
Inner Speech
event
ability
performance
Letters
Cortex

Keywords

  • Cerebellum
  • FMRI
  • Frontal
  • Insula
  • Parietal
  • Phonological loop
  • Premotor
  • Speech
  • Sternberg
  • Working memory

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Linguistics and Language
  • Speech and Hearing
  • Experimental and Cognitive Psychology
  • Cognitive Neuroscience
  • Language and Linguistics

Cite this

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abstract = "The ability to store and manipulate online information may be enhanced by an inner speech mechanism that draws upon motor brain regions. Neural correlates of this mechanism were examined using event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Sixteen participants completed two conditions of a verbal working memory task. In both conditions, participants viewed one or two target letters. In the {"}storage{"} condition, these targets were held in mind across a delay. Then a probe letter was presented, and participants indicated by button press whether the probe matched the targets. In the {"}manipulation{"} condition, participants identified new targets by thinking two alphabetical letters forward of each original target (e.g., f → h). Participants subsequently indicated whether the probe matched the newly derived targets. Brain activity during the storage and manipulation conditions was examined specifically during the delay phase in order to directly compare manipulation versus storage processes. Activations that were common to both conditions, yet disproportionately greater with manipulation, were observed in the left inferior frontal cortex, premotor cortex, and anterior insula, bilaterally in the parietal lobes and superior cerebellum, and in the right inferior cerebellum. This network shares substrates with overt speech and may represent an inner speech pathway that increases activity with greater working memory demands. Additionally, an inverse correlation was observed between manipulation-related brain activity (on correct trials) and test accuracy in the left premotor cortex, anterior insula, and bilateral superior cerebellum. This inverse relationship may represent intensification of inner speech as one struggles to maintain performance levels.",
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AB - The ability to store and manipulate online information may be enhanced by an inner speech mechanism that draws upon motor brain regions. Neural correlates of this mechanism were examined using event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Sixteen participants completed two conditions of a verbal working memory task. In both conditions, participants viewed one or two target letters. In the "storage" condition, these targets were held in mind across a delay. Then a probe letter was presented, and participants indicated by button press whether the probe matched the targets. In the "manipulation" condition, participants identified new targets by thinking two alphabetical letters forward of each original target (e.g., f → h). Participants subsequently indicated whether the probe matched the newly derived targets. Brain activity during the storage and manipulation conditions was examined specifically during the delay phase in order to directly compare manipulation versus storage processes. Activations that were common to both conditions, yet disproportionately greater with manipulation, were observed in the left inferior frontal cortex, premotor cortex, and anterior insula, bilaterally in the parietal lobes and superior cerebellum, and in the right inferior cerebellum. This network shares substrates with overt speech and may represent an inner speech pathway that increases activity with greater working memory demands. Additionally, an inverse correlation was observed between manipulation-related brain activity (on correct trials) and test accuracy in the left premotor cortex, anterior insula, and bilateral superior cerebellum. This inverse relationship may represent intensification of inner speech as one struggles to maintain performance levels.

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