From organ to molecules: Steps and consequences

Rafael Beyar

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

1 Scopus citations


The classic cardiac research programs revolved around measurable properties such as pressures, work done, vascular blood flow, electrical propagation, and other such parameters that defined the global heart functions in health and decease. Consistently, the first Henry Goldberg Workshop, held in Haifa in 1984, focused on the interactions between cardiac mechanics, electrical activation, perfusion, and metabolism of the whole heart. Questions focused on the macroscale cardiac function and performance. These studies involved engineering science, simulation, and modeling tools that were essential for the understanding of the complex interactions within the cardiac system. Three-dimensional imaging, ventricular structure, fiber mechanics, circulation and cardiovascular flow, electrical propagation, and blood pumping were all major foci of research at that time. However, it was soon obvious that in order to understand organ level characteristics, one must explore the complex cellular and intracellular control mechanisms; these became the foci of our subsequent workshops. Better understanding of organ level performance required integrated studies of organ and tissue structure and function with genetic, molecular, and cellular characteristics, including cellular communication and ionic and molecular signaling. Analysis of the cardiac system thus depends on continuous probing of the heart system with modern measurement techniques and on integrating data and acquired knowledge with analytical models, constantly evolving to match reality.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)1-12
Number of pages12
JournalAnnals of the New York Academy of Sciences
StatePublished - 2005
Externally publishedYes


  • 3-D imaging
  • Cells and molecules
  • Interacting parameters
  • Macroscale

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology(all)
  • History and Philosophy of Science


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