One of the greatest challenges to study the structure, function, and molecules in the living brain is that it is enclosed within the skull and difficult to access. Although biopsies are feasible, they are invasive, could lead to functional impairments, and in any case will only provide a small regional sample that is not necessarily reflecting the entire brain. Since the beginning of the twentieth century, in vivo imaging has gradually, and steadily, matured into non-invasive techniques that enable the repeated investigation of the structural, functional, cellular, and molecular composition of the brain. Not only is this information of great importance to scientists aiming to understand how the brain works, but these techniques are also essential to physicians who use imaging to diagnose and treat disease. The current book is a collection of 29 cutting-edge methods and protocols that are used in the current field of neuroimaging.