French version of the strengths and weaknesses of ADHD symptoms and normal behaviors (SWAN-F) questionnaire

Philippe Robaey, Devendra Amre, Russell Schachar, Louise Simard

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

12 Scopus citations


Objective: To evaluate internal and external consistency of a French adaptation of the SWAN (a 7-point rating strength-based scale, from far below to far above average) and its accuracy as a diagnostic test among children with Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). Method: Parents of 88 children referred for ADHD were interviewed using the SWAN-F, a structured interview (DISC-4.0) and the Conners' Rating Scale. Internal consistency and divergent and convergent validity of the SWAN-F were examined using the DISC-4.0 and Conners' Rating Scales as reference standards for four dimensions: Inattention, Hyperactivity/ lmpulsivity, ADHD, Oppositional Defiant Disorder. Results: The internal consistency of SWAN-F was within acceptable ranges for all dimensions (Cronbach's alpha greater than 0.80). Scores of the SWAN-F subscales were strongly associated with the DISC-4.0 diagnostic assignments and Conners' Rating Scales, following logical patterns of correspondence between diagnoses. Its accuracy as a diagnostic test was comparable to Conners' Rating Scale, with a lower rate of false positives. Conclusions: The information gathered with the SWAN-F is compatible with that obtained using the DISC-4.0 and Conners' Rating Scale. Strength-based rating scales have the potential to evaluate the normal distribution of behaviors and to provide reliable cut-off defining abnormal behavior.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)80-89
Number of pages10
JournalJournal of the Canadian Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry
Issue number2
StatePublished - May 2007
Externally publishedYes


  • Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder
  • Methylphenidate treatment
  • Pharmacogenetic

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Pediatrics, Perinatology, and Child Health
  • Psychiatry and Mental health


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