FOXO1-mediated upregulation of pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase-4 (PDK4) decreases glucose oxidation and impairs right ventricular function in pulmonary hypertension: therapeutic benefits of dichloroacetate.

Lin Piao, Vaninder K. Sidhu, Yong Hu Fang, John J. Ryan, Kishan S. Parikh, Zhigang Hong, Peter T. Toth, Erik Morrow, Shelby Kutty, Gary D. Lopaschuk, Stephen L. Archer

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Abstract

Pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase (PDK) is activated in right ventricular hypertrophy (RVH), causing an increase in glycolysis relative to glucose oxidation that impairs right ventricular function. The stimulus for PDK upregulation, its isoform specificity, and the long-term effects of PDK inhibition are unknown. We hypothesize that FOXO1-mediated PDK4 upregulation causes bioenergetic impairment and RV dysfunction, which can be reversed by dichloroacetate. Adult male Fawn-Hooded rats (FHR) with pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) and right ventricular hypertrophy (RVH; age 6-12 months) were compared to age-matched controls. Glucose oxidation (GO) and fatty acid oxidation (FAO) were measured at baseline and after acute dichloroacetate (1 mM × 40 min) in isolated working hearts and in freshly dispersed RV myocytes. The effects of chronic dichloroacetate (0.75 g/L drinking water for 6 months) on cardiac output (CO) and exercise capacity were measured in vivo. Expression of PDK4 and its regulatory transcription factor, FOXO1, were also measured in FHR and RV specimens from PAH patients (n = 10). Microarray analysis of 168 genes related to glucose or FA metabolism showed >4-fold upregulation of PDK4, aldolase B, and acyl-coenzyme A oxidase. FOXO1 was increased in FHR RV, whereas HIF-1 α was unaltered. PDK4 expression was increased, and the inactivated form of FOXO1 decreased in human PAH RV (P < 0.01). Pyruvate dehydrogenase (PDH) inhibition in RVH increased proton production and reduced GO's contribution to the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle. Acutely, dichloroacetate reduced RV proton production and increased GO's contribution (relative to FAO) to the TCA cycle and ATP production in FHR (P < 0.01). Chronically dichloroacetate decreased PDK4 and FOXO1, thereby activating PDH and increasing GO in FHR. These metabolic changes increased CO (84 ± 14 vs. 69 ± 14 ml/min, P < 0.05) and treadmill-walking distance (239 ± 20 vs. 171 ± 22 m, P < 0.05). Chronic dichloroacetate inhibits FOXO1-induced PDK4 upregulation and restores GO, leading to improved bioenergetics and RV function in RVH.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)333-346
Number of pages14
JournalJournal of molecular medicine (Berlin, Germany)
Volume91
Issue number3
DOIs
StatePublished - Jan 1 2013
Externally publishedYes

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Right Ventricular Function
Right Ventricular Hypertrophy
Pulmonary Hypertension
Up-Regulation
Glucose
Citric Acid Cycle
Pyruvic Acid
Cardiac Output
Energy Metabolism
Protons
Fatty Acids
Therapeutics
Acyl-CoA Oxidase
Glucose 1-Dehydrogenase
Fructose-Bisphosphate Aldolase
Glycolysis
Microarray Analysis
Drinking Water
Muscle Cells
Walking

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Molecular Medicine
  • Drug Discovery
  • Genetics(clinical)

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FOXO1-mediated upregulation of pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase-4 (PDK4) decreases glucose oxidation and impairs right ventricular function in pulmonary hypertension : therapeutic benefits of dichloroacetate. / Piao, Lin; Sidhu, Vaninder K.; Fang, Yong Hu; Ryan, John J.; Parikh, Kishan S.; Hong, Zhigang; Toth, Peter T.; Morrow, Erik; Kutty, Shelby; Lopaschuk, Gary D.; Archer, Stephen L.

In: Journal of molecular medicine (Berlin, Germany), Vol. 91, No. 3, 01.01.2013, p. 333-346.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Piao, Lin ; Sidhu, Vaninder K. ; Fang, Yong Hu ; Ryan, John J. ; Parikh, Kishan S. ; Hong, Zhigang ; Toth, Peter T. ; Morrow, Erik ; Kutty, Shelby ; Lopaschuk, Gary D. ; Archer, Stephen L. / FOXO1-mediated upregulation of pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase-4 (PDK4) decreases glucose oxidation and impairs right ventricular function in pulmonary hypertension : therapeutic benefits of dichloroacetate. In: Journal of molecular medicine (Berlin, Germany). 2013 ; Vol. 91, No. 3. pp. 333-346.
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abstract = "Pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase (PDK) is activated in right ventricular hypertrophy (RVH), causing an increase in glycolysis relative to glucose oxidation that impairs right ventricular function. The stimulus for PDK upregulation, its isoform specificity, and the long-term effects of PDK inhibition are unknown. We hypothesize that FOXO1-mediated PDK4 upregulation causes bioenergetic impairment and RV dysfunction, which can be reversed by dichloroacetate. Adult male Fawn-Hooded rats (FHR) with pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) and right ventricular hypertrophy (RVH; age 6-12 months) were compared to age-matched controls. Glucose oxidation (GO) and fatty acid oxidation (FAO) were measured at baseline and after acute dichloroacetate (1 mM × 40 min) in isolated working hearts and in freshly dispersed RV myocytes. The effects of chronic dichloroacetate (0.75 g/L drinking water for 6 months) on cardiac output (CO) and exercise capacity were measured in vivo. Expression of PDK4 and its regulatory transcription factor, FOXO1, were also measured in FHR and RV specimens from PAH patients (n = 10). Microarray analysis of 168 genes related to glucose or FA metabolism showed >4-fold upregulation of PDK4, aldolase B, and acyl-coenzyme A oxidase. FOXO1 was increased in FHR RV, whereas HIF-1 α was unaltered. PDK4 expression was increased, and the inactivated form of FOXO1 decreased in human PAH RV (P < 0.01). Pyruvate dehydrogenase (PDH) inhibition in RVH increased proton production and reduced GO's contribution to the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle. Acutely, dichloroacetate reduced RV proton production and increased GO's contribution (relative to FAO) to the TCA cycle and ATP production in FHR (P < 0.01). Chronically dichloroacetate decreased PDK4 and FOXO1, thereby activating PDH and increasing GO in FHR. These metabolic changes increased CO (84 ± 14 vs. 69 ± 14 ml/min, P < 0.05) and treadmill-walking distance (239 ± 20 vs. 171 ± 22 m, P < 0.05). Chronic dichloroacetate inhibits FOXO1-induced PDK4 upregulation and restores GO, leading to improved bioenergetics and RV function in RVH.",
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T1 - FOXO1-mediated upregulation of pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase-4 (PDK4) decreases glucose oxidation and impairs right ventricular function in pulmonary hypertension

T2 - therapeutic benefits of dichloroacetate.

AU - Piao, Lin

AU - Sidhu, Vaninder K.

AU - Fang, Yong Hu

AU - Ryan, John J.

AU - Parikh, Kishan S.

AU - Hong, Zhigang

AU - Toth, Peter T.

AU - Morrow, Erik

AU - Kutty, Shelby

AU - Lopaschuk, Gary D.

AU - Archer, Stephen L.

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N2 - Pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase (PDK) is activated in right ventricular hypertrophy (RVH), causing an increase in glycolysis relative to glucose oxidation that impairs right ventricular function. The stimulus for PDK upregulation, its isoform specificity, and the long-term effects of PDK inhibition are unknown. We hypothesize that FOXO1-mediated PDK4 upregulation causes bioenergetic impairment and RV dysfunction, which can be reversed by dichloroacetate. Adult male Fawn-Hooded rats (FHR) with pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) and right ventricular hypertrophy (RVH; age 6-12 months) were compared to age-matched controls. Glucose oxidation (GO) and fatty acid oxidation (FAO) were measured at baseline and after acute dichloroacetate (1 mM × 40 min) in isolated working hearts and in freshly dispersed RV myocytes. The effects of chronic dichloroacetate (0.75 g/L drinking water for 6 months) on cardiac output (CO) and exercise capacity were measured in vivo. Expression of PDK4 and its regulatory transcription factor, FOXO1, were also measured in FHR and RV specimens from PAH patients (n = 10). Microarray analysis of 168 genes related to glucose or FA metabolism showed >4-fold upregulation of PDK4, aldolase B, and acyl-coenzyme A oxidase. FOXO1 was increased in FHR RV, whereas HIF-1 α was unaltered. PDK4 expression was increased, and the inactivated form of FOXO1 decreased in human PAH RV (P < 0.01). Pyruvate dehydrogenase (PDH) inhibition in RVH increased proton production and reduced GO's contribution to the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle. Acutely, dichloroacetate reduced RV proton production and increased GO's contribution (relative to FAO) to the TCA cycle and ATP production in FHR (P < 0.01). Chronically dichloroacetate decreased PDK4 and FOXO1, thereby activating PDH and increasing GO in FHR. These metabolic changes increased CO (84 ± 14 vs. 69 ± 14 ml/min, P < 0.05) and treadmill-walking distance (239 ± 20 vs. 171 ± 22 m, P < 0.05). Chronic dichloroacetate inhibits FOXO1-induced PDK4 upregulation and restores GO, leading to improved bioenergetics and RV function in RVH.

AB - Pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase (PDK) is activated in right ventricular hypertrophy (RVH), causing an increase in glycolysis relative to glucose oxidation that impairs right ventricular function. The stimulus for PDK upregulation, its isoform specificity, and the long-term effects of PDK inhibition are unknown. We hypothesize that FOXO1-mediated PDK4 upregulation causes bioenergetic impairment and RV dysfunction, which can be reversed by dichloroacetate. Adult male Fawn-Hooded rats (FHR) with pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) and right ventricular hypertrophy (RVH; age 6-12 months) were compared to age-matched controls. Glucose oxidation (GO) and fatty acid oxidation (FAO) were measured at baseline and after acute dichloroacetate (1 mM × 40 min) in isolated working hearts and in freshly dispersed RV myocytes. The effects of chronic dichloroacetate (0.75 g/L drinking water for 6 months) on cardiac output (CO) and exercise capacity were measured in vivo. Expression of PDK4 and its regulatory transcription factor, FOXO1, were also measured in FHR and RV specimens from PAH patients (n = 10). Microarray analysis of 168 genes related to glucose or FA metabolism showed >4-fold upregulation of PDK4, aldolase B, and acyl-coenzyme A oxidase. FOXO1 was increased in FHR RV, whereas HIF-1 α was unaltered. PDK4 expression was increased, and the inactivated form of FOXO1 decreased in human PAH RV (P < 0.01). Pyruvate dehydrogenase (PDH) inhibition in RVH increased proton production and reduced GO's contribution to the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle. Acutely, dichloroacetate reduced RV proton production and increased GO's contribution (relative to FAO) to the TCA cycle and ATP production in FHR (P < 0.01). Chronically dichloroacetate decreased PDK4 and FOXO1, thereby activating PDH and increasing GO in FHR. These metabolic changes increased CO (84 ± 14 vs. 69 ± 14 ml/min, P < 0.05) and treadmill-walking distance (239 ± 20 vs. 171 ± 22 m, P < 0.05). Chronic dichloroacetate inhibits FOXO1-induced PDK4 upregulation and restores GO, leading to improved bioenergetics and RV function in RVH.

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