Four-dimensional image reconstruction strategies in cardiac-gated and respiratory-gated PET imaging

Arman Rahmim, Jing Tang, Habib Zaidi

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review


Cardiac and respiratory movements pose significant challenges to image quality and quantitative accuracy in PET imaging. Cardiac and/or respiratory gating attempt to address this issue, but instead lead to enhanced noise levels. Direct four-dimensional (4D) PET image reconstruction incorporating motion compensation has the potential to minimize noise amplification while removing considerable motion blur. A wide-ranging choice of such techniques is reviewed in this work. Future opportunities and the challenges facing the adoption of 4D PET reconstruction and its role in basic and clinical research are also discussed.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)51-67
Number of pages17
JournalPET Clinics
Issue number1
StatePublished - Jan 2013


  • 4D image reconstruction
  • 5D image reconstruction
  • Cardiac gating
  • Motion correction
  • Motion tracking
  • PET
  • Respiratory gating

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Radiation
  • Radiology Nuclear Medicine and imaging


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