PURPOSE: To determine rates and duration of patency achievable in forearm loop, upper arm straight, and brachial-internal jugular (IJ) vein hemodialysis grafts utilizing a combined percutaneous endovascular and surgical maintenance approach. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A retrospective analysis of 74 hemodialysis grafts (forearm loop, n = 22; upper arm straight, n = 34; and brachial-IJ vein, n = 18) in 50 patients with end-stage renal disease was conducted. Operative notes, interventional procedural reports, and hospital records were used to construct a history for each of these grafts from the time of surgical placement until the time the graft was abandoned for an alternative method of dialysis. All procedures performed to maintain and/or restore patency during the usable lifetime of the grafts were documented. RESULTS: Survival analysis using the Kaplan-Meier method demonstrated the following probabilities of primary patency at 6, 12, and 16 months, respectively: forearm loop graft = .46, .26, and .26; upper arm straight graft = .39, .22, and .16; and brachial-IJ vein graft = .19, .06, and .06 (forearm loop vs upper arm straight grafts, P > .05; forearm loop and upper arm straight vs brachial-IJ grafts, P < .001, P < .001, respectively). The probabilities of secondary patency at 12, 24, and 48 months, respectively, were: forearm loop graft = .89, .30, and NA; upper arm straight graft = .52, .35, and .17; and brachial-IJ vein graft = .54, .42, and .21 (P < .05 for all three comparisons: forearm loop > brachial-IJ > upper arm straight). Six percutaneous and two surgical procedures were compared and no significant differences in utilization were determined among the three graft types (ANOVA, P range, .38-.88). CONCLUSION: Kaplan-Meier analysis determined the probability of primary patency for forearm loop grafts to be similar to that for upper arm straight grafts, and both were significantly greater than for brachial-IJ vein grafts. The secondary patency rates for forearm loop grafts are greater than for upper arm and brachial-IJ vein grafts, while that for the brachial-IJ vein graft is greater than the upper arm straight graft. Utilization of interventional and surgical resources required to maintain patency do not significantly differ among the three types of upper extremity hemodialysis grafts.
- Dialysis, shunts
- Grafts, stenosis or thrombosis
- Veins, transluminal angioplasty
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Radiology Nuclear Medicine and imaging
- Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine