Foot and Ankle Pain

Se Won Lee, Mohammed Emam

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingChapter


Foot and ankle pain is frequently encountered in the PM&R clinic with various musculoskeletal and neuropathic pain generators. Local foot and ankle musculoskeletal pain generators can be divided based on their location into forefoot, midfoot, and hindfoot/ankle pathologies. Posterior tibialis tendon dysfunction is one of the most common causes of the medial hindfoot and ankle pain and is the most common cause of acquired flat foot. It can be diagnosed clinically and confirmed by direct imaging studies such as ultrasonography and MRI. Conservative management; such as the use of proper footwear, orthoses, and therapeutic exercise can be useful.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Title of host publicationClinical Diagnosis in Physical Medicine & Rehabilitation: Case by Case
Number of pages15
ISBN (Electronic)9780323720847
ISBN (Print)9780323722520
StatePublished - Jan 1 2022


  • acquired flat foot
  • ankle pain
  • foot pain
  • orthosis
  • posterior tibialis tendon

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Medicine(all)


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