Food Insecurity, CKD, and Subsequent ESRD in US Adults

Tanushree Banerjee, Deidra Crews, Donald E. Wesson, Sai Dharmarajan, Rajiv Saran, Nilka Ríos Burrows, Sharon Saydah, Neil R. Powe

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Abstract

Background: Poor access to food among low-income adults has been recognized as a risk factor for chronic kidney disease (CKD), but there are no data for the impact of food insecurity on progression to end-stage renal disease (ESRD). We hypothesized that food insecurity would be independently associated with risk for ESRD among persons with and without earlier stages of CKD. Study Design: Longitudinal cohort study. Setting & Participants: 2,320 adults (aged ≥ 20 years) with CKD and 10,448 adults with no CKD enrolled in NHANES III (1988-1994) with household income ≤ 400% of the federal poverty level linked to the Medicare ESRD Registry for a median follow-up of 12 years. Predictor: Food insecurity, defined as an affirmative response to the food-insecurity screening question. Outcome: Development of ESRD. Measurements: Demographics, income, diabetes, hypertension, estimated glomerular filtration rate, and albuminuria. Dietary acid load was estimated from 24-hour dietary recall. We used a Fine-Gray competing-risk model to estimate the relative hazard (RH) for ESRD associated with food insecurity after adjusting for covariates. Results: 4.5% of adults with CKD were food insecure. Food-insecure individuals were more likely to be younger and have diabetes (29.9%), hypertension (73.9%), or albuminuria (90.4%) as compared with their counterparts (P <. 0.05). Median dietary acid load in the food-secure versus food-insecure group was 51.2 mEq/d versus 55.6 mEq/d, respectively (P = 0.05). Food-insecure adults were more likely to develop ESRD (RH, 1.38; 95% CI, 1.08-3.10) compared with food-secure adults after adjustment for demographics, income, diabetes, hypertension, estimated glomerular filtration rate, and albuminuria. In the non-CKD group, 5.7% were food insecure. We did not find a significant association between food insecurity and ESRD (RH, 0.77; 95% CI, 0.40-1.49). Limitations: Use of single 24-hour diet recall; lack of laboratory follow-up data and measure of changes in food insecurity over time; follow-up of cohort ended 10 years ago. Conclusions: Among adults with CKD, food insecurity was independently associated with a higher likelihood of developing ESRD. Innovative approaches to address food insecurity should be tested for their impact on CKD outcomes.

Original languageEnglish (US)
JournalAmerican Journal of Kidney Diseases
DOIs
StateAccepted/In press - Feb 16 2016

Keywords

  • Chronic kidney disease (CKD)
  • Dietary acid load (DAL)
  • Dietary patterns
  • Disease trajectory
  • End-stage renal disease (ESRD)
  • Food deserts
  • Food insecurity
  • Health disparities
  • Incident ESRD
  • Kidney disease progression
  • Modifiable risk factor
  • NHANES
  • Nutrient intake
  • Poverty
  • Socioeconomic status

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Nephrology

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    Banerjee, T., Crews, D., Wesson, D. E., Dharmarajan, S., Saran, R., Ríos Burrows, N., Saydah, S., & Powe, N. R. (Accepted/In press). Food Insecurity, CKD, and Subsequent ESRD in US Adults. American Journal of Kidney Diseases. https://doi.org/10.1053/j.ajkd.2016.10.035