Purpose: A method and prototype for a fluoroscopically-guided surgical robot is reported for assisting pelvic fracture fixation. The approach extends the compatibility of existing guidance methods with C-arms that are in mainstream use (without prior geometric calibration) using an online calibration of the C-arm geometry automated via registration to patient anatomy. We report the first preclinical studies of this method in cadaver for evaluation of geometric accuracy. Methods: The robot is placed over the patient within the imaging field-of-view and radiographs are acquired as the robot rotates an attached instrument. The radiographs are then used to perform an online geometric calibration via 3D-2D image registration, which solves for the intrinsic and extrinsic parameters of the C-arm imaging system with respect to the patient. The solved projective geometry is then be used to register the robot to the patient and drive the robot to planned trajectories. This method is applied to a robotic system consisting of a drill guide instrument for guidewire placement and evaluated in experiments using a cadaver specimen. Results: Robotic drill guide alignment to trajectories defined in the cadaver pelvis were accurate within 2 mm and 1° (on average) using the calibration-free approach. Conformance of trajectories within bone corridors was confirmed in cadaver by extrapolating the aligned drill guide trajectory into the cadaver pelvis. Conclusion: This study demonstrates the accuracy of image-guided robotic positioning without prior calibration of the Carm gantry, facilitating the use of surgical robots with simpler imaging devices that cannot establish or maintain an offline calibration. Future work includes testing of the system in a clinical setting with trained orthopaedic surgeons and residents.