Total body water (TBW) constitutes approximately 75% of total body mass in term infants, decreasing to 66% after the neonatal period and to 60% after 1 year of life. Approximately 2/3 of TBW is intracellular fluid (ICF) and 1/3 of TBW is extracellular fluid (ECF). One fourth of ECF is intravascular. The electrolyte compositions of ICF and ECF are different: serum electrolyte composition reflects ECF composition. Sodium is the predominant ECF cation and potassium the predominant ICF cation, whereas chloride and bicarbonate constitute the predominant ECF anions and the main intracellular anions come from proteins and other molecules that do not leave the cell. Short term parenteral fluid therapy is administered to correct preexisting dehydratation, to provide maintenance fluids and to correct ongoing losses. Maintenance requirements are related to energy expenditure and body surface are. The main disturbances in sodium homeostasis, plasma tonicity and electrolyte balance are discussed below.
|Translated title of the contribution||Fluid and electrolyte metabolism|
|Number of pages||19|
|Journal||Acta Medica Romana|
|State||Published - 1999|
ASJC Scopus subject areas