First generation leishmaniasis vaccines: A review of field efficacy trials

Sassan Noazin, Farrokh Modabber, Ali Khamesipour, Peter G. Smith, Lawrence H. Moulton, Kiumarss Nasseri, Iraj Sharifi, Eltahir A.G. Khalil, Ivan Dario Velez Bernal, Carlos M.F. Antunes, Marie Paule Kieny, Marcel Tanner

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review


First generation candidate vaccines against leishmaniasis, prepared using inactivated whole parasites as their main ingredient, were considered as promising because of their relative ease of production and low cost. These vaccines have been the subject of many investigations over several decades and are the only leishmaniasis vaccine candidates which have undergone phase 3 clinical trial evaluation. Although the studies demonstrated the safety of the vaccines and several studies showed reasonable immunogenicity and some indication of protection, an efficacious prophylactic vaccine is yet to be identified. Despite this overall failure, these trials contributed significantly to increasing knowledge on human leishmaniasis immunology. To provide a collective view, this review discusses the methods and findings of field efficacy trials of first generation leishmaniasis vaccine clinical trials conducted in the Old and New Worlds.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)6759-6767
Number of pages9
Issue number52
StatePublished - Dec 9 2008


  • Clinical trial
  • Leishmaniasis
  • Review
  • Vaccine

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Molecular Medicine
  • Immunology and Microbiology(all)
  • veterinary(all)
  • Public Health, Environmental and Occupational Health
  • Infectious Diseases

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