Final version of 2009 AJCC melanoma staging and classification

Charles M. Balch, Jeffrey E. Gershenwald, Seng Jaw Soong, John F. Thompson, Michael B. Atkins, David R. Byrd, Antonio C. Buzaid, Alistair J. Cochran, Daniel G. Coit, Shouluan Ding, Alexander M. Eggermont, Keith T. Flaherty, Phyllis A. Gimotty, John M. Kirkwood, Kelly M. McMasters, Martin C. Mihm, Donald L. Morton, Merrick I. Ross, Arthur J. Sober, Vernon K. Sondak

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Abstract

Purpose: To revise the staging system for cutaneous melanoma on the basis of data from an expanded American Joint Committee on Cancer (AJCC) Melanoma Staging Database. Methods: The melanoma staging recommendations were made on the basis of a multivariate analysis of 30,946 patients with stages I, II, and III melanoma and 7,972 patients with stage IV melanoma to revise and clarify TNM classifications and stage grouping criteria. Results: Findings and new definitions include the following: (1) in patients with localized melanoma, tumor thickness, mitotic rate (histologically defined as mitoses/mm 2), and ulceration were the most dominant prognostic factors. (2) Mitotic rate replaces level of invasion as a primary criterion for defining T1b melanomas. (3) Among the 3,307 patients with regional metastases, components that defined the N category were the number of metastatic nodes, tumor burden, and ulceration of the primary melanoma. (4) For staging purposes, all patients with microscopic nodal metastases, regardless of extent of tumor burden, are classified as stage III. Micrometastases detected by immunohistochemistry are specifically included. (5) On the basis of a multivariate analysis of patients with distant metastases, the two dominant components in defining the M category continue to be the site of distant metastases (nonvisceral v lung v all other visceral metastatic sites) and an elevated serum lactate dehydrogenase level. Conclusion: Using an evidence-based approach, revisions to the AJCC melanoma staging system have been made that reflect our improved understanding of this disease. These revisions will be formally incorporated into the seventh edition (2009) of the AJCC Cancer Staging Manual and implemented by early 2010.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)6199-6206
Number of pages8
JournalJournal of Clinical Oncology
Volume27
Issue number36
DOIs
StatePublished - Dec 20 2009
Externally publishedYes

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Neoplasm Staging
Melanoma
Neoplasm Metastasis
Tumor Burden
Multivariate Analysis
Neoplasm Micrometastasis
L-Lactate Dehydrogenase
Mitosis
Neoplasms
Immunohistochemistry
Databases
Lung
Skin

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Cancer Research
  • Oncology
  • Medicine(all)

Cite this

Balch, C. M., Gershenwald, J. E., Soong, S. J., Thompson, J. F., Atkins, M. B., Byrd, D. R., ... Sondak, V. K. (2009). Final version of 2009 AJCC melanoma staging and classification. Journal of Clinical Oncology, 27(36), 6199-6206. https://doi.org/10.1200/JCO.2009.23.4799

Final version of 2009 AJCC melanoma staging and classification. / Balch, Charles M.; Gershenwald, Jeffrey E.; Soong, Seng Jaw; Thompson, John F.; Atkins, Michael B.; Byrd, David R.; Buzaid, Antonio C.; Cochran, Alistair J.; Coit, Daniel G.; Ding, Shouluan; Eggermont, Alexander M.; Flaherty, Keith T.; Gimotty, Phyllis A.; Kirkwood, John M.; McMasters, Kelly M.; Mihm, Martin C.; Morton, Donald L.; Ross, Merrick I.; Sober, Arthur J.; Sondak, Vernon K.

In: Journal of Clinical Oncology, Vol. 27, No. 36, 20.12.2009, p. 6199-6206.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Balch, CM, Gershenwald, JE, Soong, SJ, Thompson, JF, Atkins, MB, Byrd, DR, Buzaid, AC, Cochran, AJ, Coit, DG, Ding, S, Eggermont, AM, Flaherty, KT, Gimotty, PA, Kirkwood, JM, McMasters, KM, Mihm, MC, Morton, DL, Ross, MI, Sober, AJ & Sondak, VK 2009, 'Final version of 2009 AJCC melanoma staging and classification', Journal of Clinical Oncology, vol. 27, no. 36, pp. 6199-6206. https://doi.org/10.1200/JCO.2009.23.4799
Balch CM, Gershenwald JE, Soong SJ, Thompson JF, Atkins MB, Byrd DR et al. Final version of 2009 AJCC melanoma staging and classification. Journal of Clinical Oncology. 2009 Dec 20;27(36):6199-6206. https://doi.org/10.1200/JCO.2009.23.4799
Balch, Charles M. ; Gershenwald, Jeffrey E. ; Soong, Seng Jaw ; Thompson, John F. ; Atkins, Michael B. ; Byrd, David R. ; Buzaid, Antonio C. ; Cochran, Alistair J. ; Coit, Daniel G. ; Ding, Shouluan ; Eggermont, Alexander M. ; Flaherty, Keith T. ; Gimotty, Phyllis A. ; Kirkwood, John M. ; McMasters, Kelly M. ; Mihm, Martin C. ; Morton, Donald L. ; Ross, Merrick I. ; Sober, Arthur J. ; Sondak, Vernon K. / Final version of 2009 AJCC melanoma staging and classification. In: Journal of Clinical Oncology. 2009 ; Vol. 27, No. 36. pp. 6199-6206.
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AU - Byrd, David R.

AU - Buzaid, Antonio C.

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AU - Kirkwood, John M.

AU - McMasters, Kelly M.

AU - Mihm, Martin C.

AU - Morton, Donald L.

AU - Ross, Merrick I.

AU - Sober, Arthur J.

AU - Sondak, Vernon K.

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