Fiber-optic nonlinear endomicroscopy with focus scanning by using shape memory alloy actuation

Yicong Wu, Yuying Zhang, Jiefeng Xi, Ming Jun Li, Xingde Li

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

26 Scopus citations


A miniature fiber optic endomicroscope with built-in dynamic focus scanning capability is developed for the first time for 3-D two-photon fluorescence (TPF) imaging of biological samples. Fast2-D lateral beam scanning is realized by resonantly vibrating a double-clad fiber cantilever with a tubular piezoactuator. Slow axial scanning is achieved by moving the distal end of the imaging probe with an extremely compact electrically driven shape memory alloy (SMA). The 10-mm-long SMA allows 150-μm contractions with a driving voltage varying only from 50 to 100 mV. The response of the SMA contraction with the applied voltage is nonlinear, but repeatable and can be accurately calibrated. Depth-resolved imaging of acriflavine-stained biological tissues and unstained white paper with the endomicroscope is performed, and the results demonstrate the feasibility of 3-D nonlinear optical imaging with the SMA-based scanning fiber-optic endomicroscope.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number060506
JournalJournal of biomedical optics
Issue number6
StatePublished - Nov 2010


  • Endomicroscope
  • Focus scanning
  • Shape memory alloy
  • Two-photon fluorescence

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Electronic, Optical and Magnetic Materials
  • Biomaterials
  • Atomic and Molecular Physics, and Optics
  • Biomedical Engineering


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