Fetal hydrops and hepatosplenomegaly in the second half of pregnancy: A sign of myeloproliferative disorder in fetuses with trisomy 21

J. M. Smrcek, Ahmet Baschat, U. Germer, K. Gloeckner-Hofmann, U. Gembruch

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Abstract

Objective: To demonstrate the relationship between fetal hydrops and/or hepatosplenomegaly in the second half of pregnancy with a myeloproliferative disorder in fetuses with trisomy 21 or mosaic trisomy 21. Design: A retrospective case series. Subjects: Cases were selected from 79 cases of trisomy 21 diagnosed in our prenatal unit between 1993 and 1999. Methods: All fetuses had a detailed sonographic anatomic survey and biometry. Doppler of the umbilical and middle cerebral arteries, ductus venosus, inferior vena cava and umbilical vein was performed whenever possible. Two-dimensional echocardiography supplemented by color Doppler flow mapping and spectral pulsed wave Doppler was performed in all cases of fetal hydrops. Fetal karyotyping was obtained by amniocentesis, chorionic villus sampling or fetal blood sampling. In the presence of fetal hydrops a cordocentesis was performed for fetal hematology, biochemistry and TORCH serology. In cases with diagnosis of myeloproliferative disorder, peripheral blast cells were characterized by microscopy, cytochemistry and determination of surface markers. All cases with myeloproliferative disorder were stillborn and subsequently had a postmortem examination performed. Results: During the study period 79 cases of trisomy 21 were diagnosed. Eleven of these had fetal hydrops. Three of these fetuses presented with hepatosplenomegaly and myeloproliferative disorder in the second and third trimesters. In addition, one fetus with sonographic markers of trisomy 21, where karyotyping was unfortunately unsuccessful, presented with hepatosplenomegaly, hydrops and myeloproliferative disorder. In the four fetuses with hepatosplenomegaly and hydrops, serology was negative for congenital infection. The characteristics of blast cells in the peripheral blood smear revealed a myeloproliferative disorder. Conclusion: Fetal hydrops and/or hepatosplenomegaly in the second half of pregnancy, although suggestive of infectious etiology, may be a sign of myeloproliferative disorder in fetuses with trisomy 21 or mosaic trisomy 21. There is a possibility that a transient myeloproliferative disorder is a more common cause of mid or late-trimester hydrops in cases of trisomy 21 than previously thought. In these hydropic fetuses the prognosis seems to be poor. On the other hand we can speculate that a myeloproliferative disorder and the associated hepatosplenomegaly and/or hydrops may show spontaneous remission or that the transient myeloproliferative disorder may be without any detectable ultrasonographic signs and therefore may be more frequent in utero than realized.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)403-409
Number of pages7
JournalUltrasound in Obstetrics and Gynecology
Volume17
Issue number5
DOIs
StatePublished - 2001
Externally publishedYes

Fingerprint

Hydrops Fetalis
Myeloproliferative Disorders
pregnancy
fetuses
Down Syndrome
Fetus
disorders
Pregnancy
Edema
Karyotyping
blasts
Serology
markers
blood
hematology
sampling
Cordocentesis
Chorionic Villi Sampling
etiology
Biometry

Keywords

  • Down syndrome
  • Fetus
  • Hepatosplenomegaly
  • Hydrops fetalis
  • Leukemia
  • Leukemoid reaction
  • Myeloproliferative disorder
  • Prenatal diagnosis
  • Trisomy 21

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Obstetrics and Gynecology
  • Radiology Nuclear Medicine and imaging
  • Radiological and Ultrasound Technology
  • Reproductive Medicine
  • Acoustics and Ultrasonics

Cite this

Fetal hydrops and hepatosplenomegaly in the second half of pregnancy : A sign of myeloproliferative disorder in fetuses with trisomy 21. / Smrcek, J. M.; Baschat, Ahmet; Germer, U.; Gloeckner-Hofmann, K.; Gembruch, U.

In: Ultrasound in Obstetrics and Gynecology, Vol. 17, No. 5, 2001, p. 403-409.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

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abstract = "Objective: To demonstrate the relationship between fetal hydrops and/or hepatosplenomegaly in the second half of pregnancy with a myeloproliferative disorder in fetuses with trisomy 21 or mosaic trisomy 21. Design: A retrospective case series. Subjects: Cases were selected from 79 cases of trisomy 21 diagnosed in our prenatal unit between 1993 and 1999. Methods: All fetuses had a detailed sonographic anatomic survey and biometry. Doppler of the umbilical and middle cerebral arteries, ductus venosus, inferior vena cava and umbilical vein was performed whenever possible. Two-dimensional echocardiography supplemented by color Doppler flow mapping and spectral pulsed wave Doppler was performed in all cases of fetal hydrops. Fetal karyotyping was obtained by amniocentesis, chorionic villus sampling or fetal blood sampling. In the presence of fetal hydrops a cordocentesis was performed for fetal hematology, biochemistry and TORCH serology. In cases with diagnosis of myeloproliferative disorder, peripheral blast cells were characterized by microscopy, cytochemistry and determination of surface markers. All cases with myeloproliferative disorder were stillborn and subsequently had a postmortem examination performed. Results: During the study period 79 cases of trisomy 21 were diagnosed. Eleven of these had fetal hydrops. Three of these fetuses presented with hepatosplenomegaly and myeloproliferative disorder in the second and third trimesters. In addition, one fetus with sonographic markers of trisomy 21, where karyotyping was unfortunately unsuccessful, presented with hepatosplenomegaly, hydrops and myeloproliferative disorder. In the four fetuses with hepatosplenomegaly and hydrops, serology was negative for congenital infection. The characteristics of blast cells in the peripheral blood smear revealed a myeloproliferative disorder. Conclusion: Fetal hydrops and/or hepatosplenomegaly in the second half of pregnancy, although suggestive of infectious etiology, may be a sign of myeloproliferative disorder in fetuses with trisomy 21 or mosaic trisomy 21. There is a possibility that a transient myeloproliferative disorder is a more common cause of mid or late-trimester hydrops in cases of trisomy 21 than previously thought. In these hydropic fetuses the prognosis seems to be poor. On the other hand we can speculate that a myeloproliferative disorder and the associated hepatosplenomegaly and/or hydrops may show spontaneous remission or that the transient myeloproliferative disorder may be without any detectable ultrasonographic signs and therefore may be more frequent in utero than realized.",
keywords = "Down syndrome, Fetus, Hepatosplenomegaly, Hydrops fetalis, Leukemia, Leukemoid reaction, Myeloproliferative disorder, Prenatal diagnosis, Trisomy 21",
author = "Smrcek, {J. M.} and Ahmet Baschat and U. Germer and K. Gloeckner-Hofmann and U. Gembruch",
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T1 - Fetal hydrops and hepatosplenomegaly in the second half of pregnancy

T2 - A sign of myeloproliferative disorder in fetuses with trisomy 21

AU - Smrcek, J. M.

AU - Baschat, Ahmet

AU - Germer, U.

AU - Gloeckner-Hofmann, K.

AU - Gembruch, U.

PY - 2001

Y1 - 2001

N2 - Objective: To demonstrate the relationship between fetal hydrops and/or hepatosplenomegaly in the second half of pregnancy with a myeloproliferative disorder in fetuses with trisomy 21 or mosaic trisomy 21. Design: A retrospective case series. Subjects: Cases were selected from 79 cases of trisomy 21 diagnosed in our prenatal unit between 1993 and 1999. Methods: All fetuses had a detailed sonographic anatomic survey and biometry. Doppler of the umbilical and middle cerebral arteries, ductus venosus, inferior vena cava and umbilical vein was performed whenever possible. Two-dimensional echocardiography supplemented by color Doppler flow mapping and spectral pulsed wave Doppler was performed in all cases of fetal hydrops. Fetal karyotyping was obtained by amniocentesis, chorionic villus sampling or fetal blood sampling. In the presence of fetal hydrops a cordocentesis was performed for fetal hematology, biochemistry and TORCH serology. In cases with diagnosis of myeloproliferative disorder, peripheral blast cells were characterized by microscopy, cytochemistry and determination of surface markers. All cases with myeloproliferative disorder were stillborn and subsequently had a postmortem examination performed. Results: During the study period 79 cases of trisomy 21 were diagnosed. Eleven of these had fetal hydrops. Three of these fetuses presented with hepatosplenomegaly and myeloproliferative disorder in the second and third trimesters. In addition, one fetus with sonographic markers of trisomy 21, where karyotyping was unfortunately unsuccessful, presented with hepatosplenomegaly, hydrops and myeloproliferative disorder. In the four fetuses with hepatosplenomegaly and hydrops, serology was negative for congenital infection. The characteristics of blast cells in the peripheral blood smear revealed a myeloproliferative disorder. Conclusion: Fetal hydrops and/or hepatosplenomegaly in the second half of pregnancy, although suggestive of infectious etiology, may be a sign of myeloproliferative disorder in fetuses with trisomy 21 or mosaic trisomy 21. There is a possibility that a transient myeloproliferative disorder is a more common cause of mid or late-trimester hydrops in cases of trisomy 21 than previously thought. In these hydropic fetuses the prognosis seems to be poor. On the other hand we can speculate that a myeloproliferative disorder and the associated hepatosplenomegaly and/or hydrops may show spontaneous remission or that the transient myeloproliferative disorder may be without any detectable ultrasonographic signs and therefore may be more frequent in utero than realized.

AB - Objective: To demonstrate the relationship between fetal hydrops and/or hepatosplenomegaly in the second half of pregnancy with a myeloproliferative disorder in fetuses with trisomy 21 or mosaic trisomy 21. Design: A retrospective case series. Subjects: Cases were selected from 79 cases of trisomy 21 diagnosed in our prenatal unit between 1993 and 1999. Methods: All fetuses had a detailed sonographic anatomic survey and biometry. Doppler of the umbilical and middle cerebral arteries, ductus venosus, inferior vena cava and umbilical vein was performed whenever possible. Two-dimensional echocardiography supplemented by color Doppler flow mapping and spectral pulsed wave Doppler was performed in all cases of fetal hydrops. Fetal karyotyping was obtained by amniocentesis, chorionic villus sampling or fetal blood sampling. In the presence of fetal hydrops a cordocentesis was performed for fetal hematology, biochemistry and TORCH serology. In cases with diagnosis of myeloproliferative disorder, peripheral blast cells were characterized by microscopy, cytochemistry and determination of surface markers. All cases with myeloproliferative disorder were stillborn and subsequently had a postmortem examination performed. Results: During the study period 79 cases of trisomy 21 were diagnosed. Eleven of these had fetal hydrops. Three of these fetuses presented with hepatosplenomegaly and myeloproliferative disorder in the second and third trimesters. In addition, one fetus with sonographic markers of trisomy 21, where karyotyping was unfortunately unsuccessful, presented with hepatosplenomegaly, hydrops and myeloproliferative disorder. In the four fetuses with hepatosplenomegaly and hydrops, serology was negative for congenital infection. The characteristics of blast cells in the peripheral blood smear revealed a myeloproliferative disorder. Conclusion: Fetal hydrops and/or hepatosplenomegaly in the second half of pregnancy, although suggestive of infectious etiology, may be a sign of myeloproliferative disorder in fetuses with trisomy 21 or mosaic trisomy 21. There is a possibility that a transient myeloproliferative disorder is a more common cause of mid or late-trimester hydrops in cases of trisomy 21 than previously thought. In these hydropic fetuses the prognosis seems to be poor. On the other hand we can speculate that a myeloproliferative disorder and the associated hepatosplenomegaly and/or hydrops may show spontaneous remission or that the transient myeloproliferative disorder may be without any detectable ultrasonographic signs and therefore may be more frequent in utero than realized.

KW - Down syndrome

KW - Fetus

KW - Hepatosplenomegaly

KW - Hydrops fetalis

KW - Leukemia

KW - Leukemoid reaction

KW - Myeloproliferative disorder

KW - Prenatal diagnosis

KW - Trisomy 21

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