The ability to autonomously sense and characterize underwater objects in situ is desirable in applications of unmanned underwater vehicles (UUVs). In this work, underwater object recognition was explored using a digital holographic system. Two experiments were performed in which several objects of varying size, shape, and material were submerged in a 43,000 gallon test tank. Holograms were collected from each object at multiple distances and orientations, with the imager located either outside the tank (looking through a porthole) or submerged (looking downward). The resultant imagery from these holograms was preprocessed to improve dynamic range, mitigate speckle, and segment out the image of the object. A collection of feature descriptors were then extracted from the imagery to characterize various object properties (e.g., shape, reflectivity, texture). The features extracted from images of multiple objects, collected at different imaging geometries, were then used to train statistical models for object recognition tasks. The resulting classification models were used to perform object classification as well as estimation of various parameters of the imaging geometry. This information can then be used to inform the design of autonomous sensing algorithms for UUVs employing holographic imagers.