Fatal SARS-CoV-2 Inflammatory Syndrome and Myocarditis in an Adolescent: A Case Report

Jeanette T. Beaudry, Barbara Dietrick, Dawn B. Lammert, Alexander Constas, Julia McCaw, John Hammond, Matthew Buendia, Julie E. Stein, Andrew Pekosz, Jennifer Schuette, Heba H. Mostafa, Jody E. Hooper, Meghan Bernier, Allison Lorna Agwu, Leonard S. Feldman

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

Abstract

BACKGROUND: Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) causes coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), an entity in children initially characterized by milder case presentations and better prognoses as compared with adults. Recent reports, however, raise concern for a new hyperinflammatory entity in a subset of pediatric COVID-19 patients. METHODS: We report a fatal case of confirmed COVID-19 with hyperinflammatory features concerning for both multi-inflammatory syndrome in children (MIS-C) and primary COVID-19. RESULTS: This case highlights the ambiguity in distinguishing between these two entities in a subset of pediatric patients with COVID-19-related disease and the rapid decompensation these patients may experience. CONCLUSIONS: Appropriate clinical suspicion is necessary for both acute disease and MIS-C. SARS-CoV-2 serologic tests obtained early in the diagnostic process may help to narrow down the differential but does not distinguish between acute COVID-19 and MIS-C. Better understanding of the hyperinflammatory changes associated with MIS-C and acute COVID-19 in children will help delineate the roles for therapies, particularly if there is a hybrid phenotype occurring in adolescents.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)e72-e76
JournalThe Pediatric infectious disease journal
Volume40
Issue number2
DOIs
StatePublished - Feb 1 2021

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Pediatrics, Perinatology, and Child Health
  • Microbiology (medical)
  • Infectious Diseases

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