BACKGROUND: Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) causes coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), an entity in children initially characterized by milder case presentations and better prognoses as compared with adults. Recent reports, however, raise concern for a new hyperinflammatory entity in a subset of pediatric COVID-19 patients. METHODS: We report a fatal case of confirmed COVID-19 with hyperinflammatory features concerning for both multi-inflammatory syndrome in children (MIS-C) and primary COVID-19. RESULTS: This case highlights the ambiguity in distinguishing between these two entities in a subset of pediatric patients with COVID-19-related disease and the rapid decompensation these patients may experience. CONCLUSIONS: Appropriate clinical suspicion is necessary for both acute disease and MIS-C. SARS-CoV-2 serologic tests obtained early in the diagnostic process may help to narrow down the differential but does not distinguish between acute COVID-19 and MIS-C. Better understanding of the hyperinflammatory changes associated with MIS-C and acute COVID-19 in children will help delineate the roles for therapies, particularly if there is a hybrid phenotype occurring in adolescents.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Pediatrics, Perinatology, and Child Health
- Microbiology (medical)
- Infectious Diseases