Failure to use and sustain male condom usage: Lessons learned from a prospective study among men attending STI clinic in Pune, India

Seema Sahay, Swapna Deshpande, Shilpa Bembalkar, Mahesh Kharat, Aparna Parkhe, Radhika G. Brahme, Ramesh Paranjape, Robert C. Bollinger, Sanjay M. Mehendale, Dhayendre Moodley

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

2 Scopus citations


Background Sustained or consistent use of condoms by men remains a challenge. A study was carried out to identify factors associated with failure to use condoms consistently by men attending STD clinics in Pune, India. Method Among 14137 STI clinic attendees, 8360 HIV sero-negative men were enrolled in a cohort study. The changes in condom usage behavior were studied among 1284 men who returned for first scheduled quarterly follow up, 309 reported consistent condom use at the time of enrollment in the cohort. Data pertaining to heterosexual men practicing high risk behavior were analyzed to identify factors associated with change in condom use behavior using logistic regression model. Demographic, behavioral and biological factors observed to be associated with condom use were fitted in five Cox proportional hazards models to calculate hazard ratios and their 95% confidence intervals to identify independent predictors of failure to sustain condom use behavior. Results The univariate analysis showed that men who were 30 years or older in age (p = 0.002) and those who did not have contact female sex worker (FSW) were more likely to fail to sustain consistent condom use. However both these factors did not show significant association in multivariable analysis. Marital status and contact with Hijra (eunuch) in lifetime were associated with failure to change in their condom use behavior [AOR 0.33 (CI 0.13-0.82; p = 0.017)]. During the follow up of 2 years, 61 events (15.5 per 100 person years, 95% CI 12.3-19.5 years) of 'failure of condom use' were recorded despite counseling. Older age, contact with non CSW partner and presence of genital ulcer disease / discharge syndrome were significant predictors of failure to sustain condom use. Discussion Married monogamous older men, who report contact with sex worker and present with genital ulcer disease are at risk of failure to use condom after first exposure to voluntary HIV counseling and testing. This is a scenario of primary prevention program. Condom promotion and counseling needs to be reinforced through follow up counseling among this population.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article numbere0135071
JournalPloS one
Issue number8
StatePublished - Aug 13 2015

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology(all)
  • Agricultural and Biological Sciences(all)
  • General


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