Failure of blood cardioplegia to protect myocardium at lower temperatures

G. J. Magovern, J. T. Flaherty, Vincent L Gott, B. H. Bulkley, T. J. Gardner

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Abstract

To assess the effect of temperature, oxygenated blood and crystalloid cardioplegic solutions (CPs) at infusion temperatures of 20°C, 10°C and 4°C were compared. The amount of potassium in each CP was 25 mEq/l. There were six study groups with seven canine hearts in each group, all of which were subjected to 90 minutes of global ischemia at 20°C, 10°C or 4°C, followed by 45 minutes of normothermic reperfusion. During ischemia, either blood or crystalloid CP was given every 30 minutes. With each infusion, any change in myocardial oxygen tension was recorded using mass spectrometry, and oxygen consumption (MV̇O2) was calculated. Left ventricular (LV) function was assessed before and after ischemia in all hearts by measuring isovolumic developed pressure using an intraventricular balloon. Injection of 20° C blood CP resulted in a mean increase in intramyocardial oxygen tension (Po2) of 7 mm Hg. At 10°C or 4° C, blood CP infusions did not cause a significant increase in intramyocardial Po2, while with crystalloid CP, intramyocardial Po2 did not increase at any of the three infusion temperatures. The mean MV̇O2 with each blood CP injection, expressed as ml O2/100 g LV wet weight, was 16.5 ± 0.8 for 20°C blood, 4.1 ± 0.3 for 10°C blood and 3.5 ± 0.4 for 4°C blood (p <0.001, 20°C blood vs 10°C and 4°C blood). MV̇O2 with each crystalloid CP injection was 0.9 ± 0.1 for 20°C CP, 0.8 ± 0.1 for 10°C blood CP, and 0.7 ± 0.1 for 4°C CP. Recovery of developed pressure after 45 minutes of reperfusion, expressed as a percentage of preischemic control, was 76.0 ± 3.4% for 20°C blood CP, 65.6 ± 2.3% for 10°C blood CP, and 54.0 ± 2.7% for 4°C blood CP (p <0.05, 20°C blood CP vs 10°C and 4°C blood CP). Recovery of developed pressure, also expressed as a percentage of preischemic control, was 56.6 ± 1.4% for 20°C crystalloid CP, 72.9 ± 3.0% for 10°C crystalloid CP, and 72.0 ± 2.3% for 4°C crystalloid CP (p <0.05, 20°C crystalloid CP vs 10°C and 4°C crystalloid CP). These data show that blood CP is most effective when infused at 20°C. The use of 10°C blood CP enhanced myocardial cooling, but was of no additional benefit, presumably because there was little oxygen delivery. Blood CP at 4° C resulted in significantly poorer preservation of LV function. Crystalloid CP infused at either 4°C or 10°C was as effective as 20°C blood CP, despite the absence of oxygen use by hearts treated with crystalloid CP.

Original languageEnglish (US)
JournalCirculation
Volume66
Issue number2 II
StatePublished - 1982

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Induced Heart Arrest
Myocardium
Temperature
Oxygen
Ischemia
Left Ventricular Function
Injections
Reperfusion
crystalloid solutions
Pressure

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Physiology
  • Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine

Cite this

Magovern, G. J., Flaherty, J. T., Gott, V. L., Bulkley, B. H., & Gardner, T. J. (1982). Failure of blood cardioplegia to protect myocardium at lower temperatures. Circulation, 66(2 II).

Failure of blood cardioplegia to protect myocardium at lower temperatures. / Magovern, G. J.; Flaherty, J. T.; Gott, Vincent L; Bulkley, B. H.; Gardner, T. J.

In: Circulation, Vol. 66, No. 2 II, 1982.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Magovern, GJ, Flaherty, JT, Gott, VL, Bulkley, BH & Gardner, TJ 1982, 'Failure of blood cardioplegia to protect myocardium at lower temperatures', Circulation, vol. 66, no. 2 II.
Magovern GJ, Flaherty JT, Gott VL, Bulkley BH, Gardner TJ. Failure of blood cardioplegia to protect myocardium at lower temperatures. Circulation. 1982;66(2 II).
Magovern, G. J. ; Flaherty, J. T. ; Gott, Vincent L ; Bulkley, B. H. ; Gardner, T. J. / Failure of blood cardioplegia to protect myocardium at lower temperatures. In: Circulation. 1982 ; Vol. 66, No. 2 II.
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abstract = "To assess the effect of temperature, oxygenated blood and crystalloid cardioplegic solutions (CPs) at infusion temperatures of 20°C, 10°C and 4°C were compared. The amount of potassium in each CP was 25 mEq/l. There were six study groups with seven canine hearts in each group, all of which were subjected to 90 minutes of global ischemia at 20°C, 10°C or 4°C, followed by 45 minutes of normothermic reperfusion. During ischemia, either blood or crystalloid CP was given every 30 minutes. With each infusion, any change in myocardial oxygen tension was recorded using mass spectrometry, and oxygen consumption (MV̇O2) was calculated. Left ventricular (LV) function was assessed before and after ischemia in all hearts by measuring isovolumic developed pressure using an intraventricular balloon. Injection of 20° C blood CP resulted in a mean increase in intramyocardial oxygen tension (Po2) of 7 mm Hg. At 10°C or 4° C, blood CP infusions did not cause a significant increase in intramyocardial Po2, while with crystalloid CP, intramyocardial Po2 did not increase at any of the three infusion temperatures. The mean MV̇O2 with each blood CP injection, expressed as ml O2/100 g LV wet weight, was 16.5 ± 0.8 for 20°C blood, 4.1 ± 0.3 for 10°C blood and 3.5 ± 0.4 for 4°C blood (p <0.001, 20°C blood vs 10°C and 4°C blood). MV̇O2 with each crystalloid CP injection was 0.9 ± 0.1 for 20°C CP, 0.8 ± 0.1 for 10°C blood CP, and 0.7 ± 0.1 for 4°C CP. Recovery of developed pressure after 45 minutes of reperfusion, expressed as a percentage of preischemic control, was 76.0 ± 3.4{\%} for 20°C blood CP, 65.6 ± 2.3{\%} for 10°C blood CP, and 54.0 ± 2.7{\%} for 4°C blood CP (p <0.05, 20°C blood CP vs 10°C and 4°C blood CP). Recovery of developed pressure, also expressed as a percentage of preischemic control, was 56.6 ± 1.4{\%} for 20°C crystalloid CP, 72.9 ± 3.0{\%} for 10°C crystalloid CP, and 72.0 ± 2.3{\%} for 4°C crystalloid CP (p <0.05, 20°C crystalloid CP vs 10°C and 4°C crystalloid CP). These data show that blood CP is most effective when infused at 20°C. The use of 10°C blood CP enhanced myocardial cooling, but was of no additional benefit, presumably because there was little oxygen delivery. Blood CP at 4° C resulted in significantly poorer preservation of LV function. Crystalloid CP infused at either 4°C or 10°C was as effective as 20°C blood CP, despite the absence of oxygen use by hearts treated with crystalloid CP.",
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N2 - To assess the effect of temperature, oxygenated blood and crystalloid cardioplegic solutions (CPs) at infusion temperatures of 20°C, 10°C and 4°C were compared. The amount of potassium in each CP was 25 mEq/l. There were six study groups with seven canine hearts in each group, all of which were subjected to 90 minutes of global ischemia at 20°C, 10°C or 4°C, followed by 45 minutes of normothermic reperfusion. During ischemia, either blood or crystalloid CP was given every 30 minutes. With each infusion, any change in myocardial oxygen tension was recorded using mass spectrometry, and oxygen consumption (MV̇O2) was calculated. Left ventricular (LV) function was assessed before and after ischemia in all hearts by measuring isovolumic developed pressure using an intraventricular balloon. Injection of 20° C blood CP resulted in a mean increase in intramyocardial oxygen tension (Po2) of 7 mm Hg. At 10°C or 4° C, blood CP infusions did not cause a significant increase in intramyocardial Po2, while with crystalloid CP, intramyocardial Po2 did not increase at any of the three infusion temperatures. The mean MV̇O2 with each blood CP injection, expressed as ml O2/100 g LV wet weight, was 16.5 ± 0.8 for 20°C blood, 4.1 ± 0.3 for 10°C blood and 3.5 ± 0.4 for 4°C blood (p <0.001, 20°C blood vs 10°C and 4°C blood). MV̇O2 with each crystalloid CP injection was 0.9 ± 0.1 for 20°C CP, 0.8 ± 0.1 for 10°C blood CP, and 0.7 ± 0.1 for 4°C CP. Recovery of developed pressure after 45 minutes of reperfusion, expressed as a percentage of preischemic control, was 76.0 ± 3.4% for 20°C blood CP, 65.6 ± 2.3% for 10°C blood CP, and 54.0 ± 2.7% for 4°C blood CP (p <0.05, 20°C blood CP vs 10°C and 4°C blood CP). Recovery of developed pressure, also expressed as a percentage of preischemic control, was 56.6 ± 1.4% for 20°C crystalloid CP, 72.9 ± 3.0% for 10°C crystalloid CP, and 72.0 ± 2.3% for 4°C crystalloid CP (p <0.05, 20°C crystalloid CP vs 10°C and 4°C crystalloid CP). These data show that blood CP is most effective when infused at 20°C. The use of 10°C blood CP enhanced myocardial cooling, but was of no additional benefit, presumably because there was little oxygen delivery. Blood CP at 4° C resulted in significantly poorer preservation of LV function. Crystalloid CP infused at either 4°C or 10°C was as effective as 20°C blood CP, despite the absence of oxygen use by hearts treated with crystalloid CP.

AB - To assess the effect of temperature, oxygenated blood and crystalloid cardioplegic solutions (CPs) at infusion temperatures of 20°C, 10°C and 4°C were compared. The amount of potassium in each CP was 25 mEq/l. There were six study groups with seven canine hearts in each group, all of which were subjected to 90 minutes of global ischemia at 20°C, 10°C or 4°C, followed by 45 minutes of normothermic reperfusion. During ischemia, either blood or crystalloid CP was given every 30 minutes. With each infusion, any change in myocardial oxygen tension was recorded using mass spectrometry, and oxygen consumption (MV̇O2) was calculated. Left ventricular (LV) function was assessed before and after ischemia in all hearts by measuring isovolumic developed pressure using an intraventricular balloon. Injection of 20° C blood CP resulted in a mean increase in intramyocardial oxygen tension (Po2) of 7 mm Hg. At 10°C or 4° C, blood CP infusions did not cause a significant increase in intramyocardial Po2, while with crystalloid CP, intramyocardial Po2 did not increase at any of the three infusion temperatures. The mean MV̇O2 with each blood CP injection, expressed as ml O2/100 g LV wet weight, was 16.5 ± 0.8 for 20°C blood, 4.1 ± 0.3 for 10°C blood and 3.5 ± 0.4 for 4°C blood (p <0.001, 20°C blood vs 10°C and 4°C blood). MV̇O2 with each crystalloid CP injection was 0.9 ± 0.1 for 20°C CP, 0.8 ± 0.1 for 10°C blood CP, and 0.7 ± 0.1 for 4°C CP. Recovery of developed pressure after 45 minutes of reperfusion, expressed as a percentage of preischemic control, was 76.0 ± 3.4% for 20°C blood CP, 65.6 ± 2.3% for 10°C blood CP, and 54.0 ± 2.7% for 4°C blood CP (p <0.05, 20°C blood CP vs 10°C and 4°C blood CP). Recovery of developed pressure, also expressed as a percentage of preischemic control, was 56.6 ± 1.4% for 20°C crystalloid CP, 72.9 ± 3.0% for 10°C crystalloid CP, and 72.0 ± 2.3% for 4°C crystalloid CP (p <0.05, 20°C crystalloid CP vs 10°C and 4°C crystalloid CP). These data show that blood CP is most effective when infused at 20°C. The use of 10°C blood CP enhanced myocardial cooling, but was of no additional benefit, presumably because there was little oxygen delivery. Blood CP at 4° C resulted in significantly poorer preservation of LV function. Crystalloid CP infused at either 4°C or 10°C was as effective as 20°C blood CP, despite the absence of oxygen use by hearts treated with crystalloid CP.

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