Factors related to autonomy and discontinuation of use of natural family planning for women in Liberia and Zambia

Robert T. Kambic, Ronald H. Gray

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle


From 1983 to 1988, natural family planning programs were conducted in Liberia and Zambia. In Liberia 1055 and in Zambia 2709 women used natural family planning to avoid pregnancy. These users could become pregnant, discontinue use of the method, or become autonomous users. Women who changed intention did not stop use of natural family planning and were not treated as discontinuations. In a multivariate analysis, client's age, breastfeeding status, employment, urban/rural residence, time of registration in the program, and visit intensity were significantly associated with the outcomes. The most consistent association was that women who entered the programs in the later time periods were more likely to become autonomous users and less likely to discontinue use of the method or to experience an accidental pregnancy.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)2060-2062
Number of pages3
JournalAmerican journal of obstetrics and gynecology
Issue number6
StatePublished - Jan 1 1991



  • Liberia
  • Natural family planning
  • Zambia
  • autonomous users
  • unplanned pregnancy

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Obstetrics and Gynecology

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