Factors associated with willingness to try different pain treatments for pain after a spinal cord injury

Jennifer Haythornthwaite, Stephen T Wegener, Lisa Benrud-Larson, Betty Fisher, Michael Clark, Timothy Dillingham, Ling Cheng, Barbara Jane De Lateur

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Abstract

Objective: To develop and establish the psychometric properties of a pain treatment willingness scale and identify factors associated with willingness to try specific pain treatments for spinal cord injury (SCI)-related pain. Design: As part of a larger study, a questionnaire was designed to assess willingness to use various pain medications and other types of pain treatments. This questionnaire, which included measures of pain severity, pain interference, mood, hope, and current use of pain treatments, was completed by persons with SCI recruited through the mail or in person. Subjects: One hundred fifteen persons completed the questionnaire (35% response rate). Seventy-two percent of the participants were men, mean age was 49.1 years, and average time elapsed since injury was 8 years. Results: Factor analysis indicated two factors - willingness to use opioids and willingness to use nonpharmacological treatment (i.e., physical therapy, relaxation methods and stress management, and alternative medicine). Internal consistency and convergent and divergent validity were established. Persons experiencing SCI-related pain were more willing to use pain treatments than those without current pain, and those who were currently using opioids reported greater willingness to use that treatment. Persons who reported SCI-related pain were more willing to use nonpharmacological treatments than opioid medications. Finally, participants demonstrated different degrees of willingness to use an opioid medication based on its name (i.e., "narcotic," "codeine," "morphine," "methadone"). Conclusions: Willingness to use a specific pain treatment may be a key factor mediating the behavior of using that specific treatment. Assessment of patient attitudes toward various treatments options, particularly regarding opioid medications, is warranted to optimize treatment adherence. Once the factors that determine these attitudes are identified, interventions to increase willingness to use nonpharmacological or opioid treatments can be designed and evaluated.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)31-38
Number of pages8
JournalClinical Journal of Pain
Volume19
Issue number1
DOIs
StatePublished - Jan 2003

Fingerprint

Spinal Cord Injuries
Pain
Opioid Analgesics
Therapeutics
Hope
Relaxation Therapy
Codeine
Methadone
Narcotics
Postal Service
Complementary Therapies
Psychometrics
Morphine
Statistical Factor Analysis
Names

Keywords

  • Opioids
  • Pain treatment
  • Psychological treatment
  • Spinal cord injury
  • Treatment barriers

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Anesthesiology and Pain Medicine
  • Clinical Neurology

Cite this

Factors associated with willingness to try different pain treatments for pain after a spinal cord injury. / Haythornthwaite, Jennifer; Wegener, Stephen T; Benrud-Larson, Lisa; Fisher, Betty; Clark, Michael; Dillingham, Timothy; Cheng, Ling; De Lateur, Barbara Jane.

In: Clinical Journal of Pain, Vol. 19, No. 1, 01.2003, p. 31-38.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

@article{a7946a7a6d8447419a02ada2688b7f5c,
title = "Factors associated with willingness to try different pain treatments for pain after a spinal cord injury",
abstract = "Objective: To develop and establish the psychometric properties of a pain treatment willingness scale and identify factors associated with willingness to try specific pain treatments for spinal cord injury (SCI)-related pain. Design: As part of a larger study, a questionnaire was designed to assess willingness to use various pain medications and other types of pain treatments. This questionnaire, which included measures of pain severity, pain interference, mood, hope, and current use of pain treatments, was completed by persons with SCI recruited through the mail or in person. Subjects: One hundred fifteen persons completed the questionnaire (35{\%} response rate). Seventy-two percent of the participants were men, mean age was 49.1 years, and average time elapsed since injury was 8 years. Results: Factor analysis indicated two factors - willingness to use opioids and willingness to use nonpharmacological treatment (i.e., physical therapy, relaxation methods and stress management, and alternative medicine). Internal consistency and convergent and divergent validity were established. Persons experiencing SCI-related pain were more willing to use pain treatments than those without current pain, and those who were currently using opioids reported greater willingness to use that treatment. Persons who reported SCI-related pain were more willing to use nonpharmacological treatments than opioid medications. Finally, participants demonstrated different degrees of willingness to use an opioid medication based on its name (i.e., {"}narcotic,{"} {"}codeine,{"} {"}morphine,{"} {"}methadone{"}). Conclusions: Willingness to use a specific pain treatment may be a key factor mediating the behavior of using that specific treatment. Assessment of patient attitudes toward various treatments options, particularly regarding opioid medications, is warranted to optimize treatment adherence. Once the factors that determine these attitudes are identified, interventions to increase willingness to use nonpharmacological or opioid treatments can be designed and evaluated.",
keywords = "Opioids, Pain treatment, Psychological treatment, Spinal cord injury, Treatment barriers",
author = "Jennifer Haythornthwaite and Wegener, {Stephen T} and Lisa Benrud-Larson and Betty Fisher and Michael Clark and Timothy Dillingham and Ling Cheng and {De Lateur}, {Barbara Jane}",
year = "2003",
month = "1",
doi = "10.1097/00002508-200301000-00004",
language = "English (US)",
volume = "19",
pages = "31--38",
journal = "Clinical Journal of Pain",
issn = "0749-8047",
publisher = "Lippincott Williams and Wilkins",
number = "1",

}

TY - JOUR

T1 - Factors associated with willingness to try different pain treatments for pain after a spinal cord injury

AU - Haythornthwaite, Jennifer

AU - Wegener, Stephen T

AU - Benrud-Larson, Lisa

AU - Fisher, Betty

AU - Clark, Michael

AU - Dillingham, Timothy

AU - Cheng, Ling

AU - De Lateur, Barbara Jane

PY - 2003/1

Y1 - 2003/1

N2 - Objective: To develop and establish the psychometric properties of a pain treatment willingness scale and identify factors associated with willingness to try specific pain treatments for spinal cord injury (SCI)-related pain. Design: As part of a larger study, a questionnaire was designed to assess willingness to use various pain medications and other types of pain treatments. This questionnaire, which included measures of pain severity, pain interference, mood, hope, and current use of pain treatments, was completed by persons with SCI recruited through the mail or in person. Subjects: One hundred fifteen persons completed the questionnaire (35% response rate). Seventy-two percent of the participants were men, mean age was 49.1 years, and average time elapsed since injury was 8 years. Results: Factor analysis indicated two factors - willingness to use opioids and willingness to use nonpharmacological treatment (i.e., physical therapy, relaxation methods and stress management, and alternative medicine). Internal consistency and convergent and divergent validity were established. Persons experiencing SCI-related pain were more willing to use pain treatments than those without current pain, and those who were currently using opioids reported greater willingness to use that treatment. Persons who reported SCI-related pain were more willing to use nonpharmacological treatments than opioid medications. Finally, participants demonstrated different degrees of willingness to use an opioid medication based on its name (i.e., "narcotic," "codeine," "morphine," "methadone"). Conclusions: Willingness to use a specific pain treatment may be a key factor mediating the behavior of using that specific treatment. Assessment of patient attitudes toward various treatments options, particularly regarding opioid medications, is warranted to optimize treatment adherence. Once the factors that determine these attitudes are identified, interventions to increase willingness to use nonpharmacological or opioid treatments can be designed and evaluated.

AB - Objective: To develop and establish the psychometric properties of a pain treatment willingness scale and identify factors associated with willingness to try specific pain treatments for spinal cord injury (SCI)-related pain. Design: As part of a larger study, a questionnaire was designed to assess willingness to use various pain medications and other types of pain treatments. This questionnaire, which included measures of pain severity, pain interference, mood, hope, and current use of pain treatments, was completed by persons with SCI recruited through the mail or in person. Subjects: One hundred fifteen persons completed the questionnaire (35% response rate). Seventy-two percent of the participants were men, mean age was 49.1 years, and average time elapsed since injury was 8 years. Results: Factor analysis indicated two factors - willingness to use opioids and willingness to use nonpharmacological treatment (i.e., physical therapy, relaxation methods and stress management, and alternative medicine). Internal consistency and convergent and divergent validity were established. Persons experiencing SCI-related pain were more willing to use pain treatments than those without current pain, and those who were currently using opioids reported greater willingness to use that treatment. Persons who reported SCI-related pain were more willing to use nonpharmacological treatments than opioid medications. Finally, participants demonstrated different degrees of willingness to use an opioid medication based on its name (i.e., "narcotic," "codeine," "morphine," "methadone"). Conclusions: Willingness to use a specific pain treatment may be a key factor mediating the behavior of using that specific treatment. Assessment of patient attitudes toward various treatments options, particularly regarding opioid medications, is warranted to optimize treatment adherence. Once the factors that determine these attitudes are identified, interventions to increase willingness to use nonpharmacological or opioid treatments can be designed and evaluated.

KW - Opioids

KW - Pain treatment

KW - Psychological treatment

KW - Spinal cord injury

KW - Treatment barriers

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=0037217744&partnerID=8YFLogxK

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=0037217744&partnerID=8YFLogxK

U2 - 10.1097/00002508-200301000-00004

DO - 10.1097/00002508-200301000-00004

M3 - Article

VL - 19

SP - 31

EP - 38

JO - Clinical Journal of Pain

JF - Clinical Journal of Pain

SN - 0749-8047

IS - 1

ER -