Factors associated with smoking among tuberculosis patients in Spain

María Ángeles Jiménez-Fuentes, Teresa Rodrigo, María Neus Altet, Carlos A. Jiménez-Ruiz, Martí Casals, Antón Penas, Isabel Mir, Segismundo Solano Reina, Juan Antonio Riesco-Miranda, Joan A. Caylá

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle


Background: To determine the prevalence of smoking and analyze associated factors in a cohort of patients diagnosed with tuberculosis (TB) in Spain between 2006 and 2013. Methods: Multicenter, cross-sectional, descriptive, observational study using a national database of TB patients, using logistic regression to calculate odds ratios (OR) and confidence intervals (CI). Results: We analyzed 5,846 cases (62 % men, mean age 39 years, 33 % foreigners). 23.4 % were alcohol abuser, 1.3 % were injected drug users (IDU), 4.6 % were co-infected with HIV, and 7.5 % had a history of TB treatment. 6.6 % and 0.8 % showed resistance to one and multiple drugs, respectively. The predominant clinical presentation was pulmonary (71 %) with a cavitary radiological pattern in 32.8 % of cases. 82 % of cases were confirmed microbiologically, and 54 % were smear-positive microscopy. 2,300 (39.3 %) patients were smokers. The following factors were associated with smoking: male sex (OR=2.26;CI:1.97;2.60), Spanish origin (OR=2.79;CI:2.40-3.24), alcoholism (OR=2.85;CI:2.46;3.31), IDU (OR=2.78;CI:1.48;5.52), homelessness (OR=1.99;CI:1.14-3.57), pulmonary TB (OR=1.61;CI:1.16;2.24), cavitary radiological pattern (OR=1.99;CI:1.43;2.79) and a smear-positive microscopy at the time of diagnosis (OR=1.39;CI:1.14;1.17). Conclusions: The prevalence of smoking among TB patients is high. Smokers with TB have a distinct sociodemographic, clinical, radiological and microbiological profile to non-smokers.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number486
JournalBMC Infectious Diseases
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished - Sep 14 2016
Externally publishedYes



  • Predictors
  • Prevention
  • Smoking
  • Tuberculosis

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Infectious Diseases

Cite this

Jiménez-Fuentes, M. Á., Rodrigo, T., Altet, M. N., Jiménez-Ruiz, C. A., Casals, M., Penas, A., ... Caylá, J. A. (2016). Factors associated with smoking among tuberculosis patients in Spain. BMC Infectious Diseases, 16(1), [486]. https://doi.org/10.1186/s12879-016-1819-1