Factors Associated with Improved HIV/AIDS Treatment Outcomes: Comparing two Major ART Service Delivery Models in Vietnam

Bach Xuan Tran, Quang Nhat Nguyen, Long Hoang Nguyen, Cuong Tat Nguyen, Huyen Phuc Do, Nu Thi Truong, Carl A Latkin

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle


A mixed design approach was performed to assess the CD4 count levels over time and their associated factors among 362 HIV patients on ART from clinics with HIV testing and counseling (ART-HTC) services and those with general healthcare (ART-GH) services. Longitudinal CD4 count data were retrospectively collected from medical records. Sociodemographic, clinical, alcohol use and smoking characteristics were obtained via face-to-face interviews. Multivariate mixed effect linear regression was utilized to determine the association. We found that HIV patients at ART-GH clinics were more likely to achieve higher CD4 counts over time compared to patients at ART-HTC clinics. Additionally, having an increase in CD4 counts was found to be associated with having longer duration of ART and higher baseline CD4 levels. Cigarette smoking and hazardous alcohol use, however, were not associated with CD4 count improvement. Our findings suggest that combining HTC and GH services might provide a synergistic benefit in ART treatment outcomes through an improved access to comprehensive HIV healthcare services for HIV patients on therapy.

Original languageEnglish (US)
JournalAIDS and behavior
Publication statusPublished - Jan 1 2019



  • Alcohol use
  • ART service delivery models
  • Cigarette smoking
  • HIV testing and counseling services
  • HIV treatment outcome

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Social Psychology
  • Public Health, Environmental and Occupational Health
  • Infectious Diseases

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