Factors associated with caregiver readiness to use nonpharmacologic strategies to manage dementia-related behavioral symptoms

Laura N Gitlin, Karen Rose

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Abstract

Background Nonpharmacologic strategies to manage dementia-related behavioral symptoms depend upon caregiver implementation. Caregivers may vary in readiness to use strategies. We examined characteristics associated with readiness, extent readiness changed during intervention, and predictors of change in readiness. Methods Data came from a randomized trial involving 119 caregivers in a nonpharmacologic intervention for managing behavioral symptoms. Baseline measures included caregiver, patient, and treatment-related factors. At initial (2 weeks from baseline) and final (16 weeks) intervention sessions, interventionists rated caregiver readiness as pre-action (precontemplation = 1; contemplation = 2; preparation = 3) or action (= 4). Ordinal logistic regression identified baseline characteristics associated with initial readiness. Mc Nemar-Bowker test of symmetry described change in readiness; binary logistic regression identified baseline predictors of change in readiness (initial to final sessions). One-way multivariate analysis of variance identified treatment factors (dose/intensity, number of strategies used, perceived benefits, and therapeutic engagement) associated with change in readiness. Results At initial intervention session, 67.2% (N = 80) of caregivers were in pre-action and 32.8% (N = 39) in action. Initial high readiness was associated with better caregiver mood, less financial difficulty, lower patient cognition, and more behavioral symptoms. By final session, 72% (N = 79) were in action and 28% (N = 31) in pre-action; caregivers with less financial difficulty improved in readiness (B = -0.70, p = 0.017); those in action were more therapeutically engaged (F[2,107] = 3.61, p = 0.030) and perceived greater intervention benefits (F[2, 88] = 6.06, p = 0.003). Conclusion Whereas patient and caregiver-related factors were associated with initial readiness, financial stability, therapeutic engagement, and perceived benefits enhanced probability of change. Understanding caregiver readiness and factors associated with its change may be important considerations in nonpharmacologic interventions.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)93-102
Number of pages10
JournalInternational Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry
Volume29
Issue number1
DOIs
StatePublished - Jan 2014

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Behavioral Symptoms
Caregivers
Dementia
Logistic Models
Therapeutics
Cognition
Analysis of Variance
Multivariate Analysis

Keywords

  • Alzheimer's disease
  • informal caregiving
  • intervention
  • treatment adherence

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Geriatrics and Gerontology
  • Psychiatry and Mental health

Cite this

@article{74ee014d640e43ec8a255e565226e752,
title = "Factors associated with caregiver readiness to use nonpharmacologic strategies to manage dementia-related behavioral symptoms",
abstract = "Background Nonpharmacologic strategies to manage dementia-related behavioral symptoms depend upon caregiver implementation. Caregivers may vary in readiness to use strategies. We examined characteristics associated with readiness, extent readiness changed during intervention, and predictors of change in readiness. Methods Data came from a randomized trial involving 119 caregivers in a nonpharmacologic intervention for managing behavioral symptoms. Baseline measures included caregiver, patient, and treatment-related factors. At initial (2 weeks from baseline) and final (16 weeks) intervention sessions, interventionists rated caregiver readiness as pre-action (precontemplation = 1; contemplation = 2; preparation = 3) or action (= 4). Ordinal logistic regression identified baseline characteristics associated with initial readiness. Mc Nemar-Bowker test of symmetry described change in readiness; binary logistic regression identified baseline predictors of change in readiness (initial to final sessions). One-way multivariate analysis of variance identified treatment factors (dose/intensity, number of strategies used, perceived benefits, and therapeutic engagement) associated with change in readiness. Results At initial intervention session, 67.2{\%} (N = 80) of caregivers were in pre-action and 32.8{\%} (N = 39) in action. Initial high readiness was associated with better caregiver mood, less financial difficulty, lower patient cognition, and more behavioral symptoms. By final session, 72{\%} (N = 79) were in action and 28{\%} (N = 31) in pre-action; caregivers with less financial difficulty improved in readiness (B = -0.70, p = 0.017); those in action were more therapeutically engaged (F[2,107] = 3.61, p = 0.030) and perceived greater intervention benefits (F[2, 88] = 6.06, p = 0.003). Conclusion Whereas patient and caregiver-related factors were associated with initial readiness, financial stability, therapeutic engagement, and perceived benefits enhanced probability of change. Understanding caregiver readiness and factors associated with its change may be important considerations in nonpharmacologic interventions.",
keywords = "Alzheimer's disease, informal caregiving, intervention, treatment adherence",
author = "Gitlin, {Laura N} and Karen Rose",
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doi = "10.1002/gps.3979",
language = "English (US)",
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pages = "93--102",
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T1 - Factors associated with caregiver readiness to use nonpharmacologic strategies to manage dementia-related behavioral symptoms

AU - Gitlin, Laura N

AU - Rose, Karen

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N2 - Background Nonpharmacologic strategies to manage dementia-related behavioral symptoms depend upon caregiver implementation. Caregivers may vary in readiness to use strategies. We examined characteristics associated with readiness, extent readiness changed during intervention, and predictors of change in readiness. Methods Data came from a randomized trial involving 119 caregivers in a nonpharmacologic intervention for managing behavioral symptoms. Baseline measures included caregiver, patient, and treatment-related factors. At initial (2 weeks from baseline) and final (16 weeks) intervention sessions, interventionists rated caregiver readiness as pre-action (precontemplation = 1; contemplation = 2; preparation = 3) or action (= 4). Ordinal logistic regression identified baseline characteristics associated with initial readiness. Mc Nemar-Bowker test of symmetry described change in readiness; binary logistic regression identified baseline predictors of change in readiness (initial to final sessions). One-way multivariate analysis of variance identified treatment factors (dose/intensity, number of strategies used, perceived benefits, and therapeutic engagement) associated with change in readiness. Results At initial intervention session, 67.2% (N = 80) of caregivers were in pre-action and 32.8% (N = 39) in action. Initial high readiness was associated with better caregiver mood, less financial difficulty, lower patient cognition, and more behavioral symptoms. By final session, 72% (N = 79) were in action and 28% (N = 31) in pre-action; caregivers with less financial difficulty improved in readiness (B = -0.70, p = 0.017); those in action were more therapeutically engaged (F[2,107] = 3.61, p = 0.030) and perceived greater intervention benefits (F[2, 88] = 6.06, p = 0.003). Conclusion Whereas patient and caregiver-related factors were associated with initial readiness, financial stability, therapeutic engagement, and perceived benefits enhanced probability of change. Understanding caregiver readiness and factors associated with its change may be important considerations in nonpharmacologic interventions.

AB - Background Nonpharmacologic strategies to manage dementia-related behavioral symptoms depend upon caregiver implementation. Caregivers may vary in readiness to use strategies. We examined characteristics associated with readiness, extent readiness changed during intervention, and predictors of change in readiness. Methods Data came from a randomized trial involving 119 caregivers in a nonpharmacologic intervention for managing behavioral symptoms. Baseline measures included caregiver, patient, and treatment-related factors. At initial (2 weeks from baseline) and final (16 weeks) intervention sessions, interventionists rated caregiver readiness as pre-action (precontemplation = 1; contemplation = 2; preparation = 3) or action (= 4). Ordinal logistic regression identified baseline characteristics associated with initial readiness. Mc Nemar-Bowker test of symmetry described change in readiness; binary logistic regression identified baseline predictors of change in readiness (initial to final sessions). One-way multivariate analysis of variance identified treatment factors (dose/intensity, number of strategies used, perceived benefits, and therapeutic engagement) associated with change in readiness. Results At initial intervention session, 67.2% (N = 80) of caregivers were in pre-action and 32.8% (N = 39) in action. Initial high readiness was associated with better caregiver mood, less financial difficulty, lower patient cognition, and more behavioral symptoms. By final session, 72% (N = 79) were in action and 28% (N = 31) in pre-action; caregivers with less financial difficulty improved in readiness (B = -0.70, p = 0.017); those in action were more therapeutically engaged (F[2,107] = 3.61, p = 0.030) and perceived greater intervention benefits (F[2, 88] = 6.06, p = 0.003). Conclusion Whereas patient and caregiver-related factors were associated with initial readiness, financial stability, therapeutic engagement, and perceived benefits enhanced probability of change. Understanding caregiver readiness and factors associated with its change may be important considerations in nonpharmacologic interventions.

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KW - informal caregiving

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KW - treatment adherence

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