Facial transplantation: The first 9 years

Saami Khalifian, Philip S. Brazio, Raja Mohan, Cynthia Shaffer, Gerald Brandacher, Rolf N. Barth, Eduardo D. Rodriguez

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review


Since the first facial transplantation in 2005, 28 have been done worldwide with encouraging immunological, functional, psychological, and aesthetic outcomes. Unlike solid organ transplantation, which is potentially life-saving, facial transplantation is life-changing. This difference has generated ethical concerns about the exposure of otherwise young and healthy individuals to the sequelae of lifelong, high-dose, multidrug immunosuppression. Nevertheless, advances in immunomodulatory and immunosuppressive protocols, microsurgical techniques, and computer-aided surgical planning have enabled broader clinical application of this procedure to patients. Although episodes of acute skin rejection continue to pose a serious threat to face transplant recipients, all cases have been controlled with conventional immunosuppressive regimens, and no cases of chronic rejection have been reported.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)2153-2163
Number of pages11
JournalThe Lancet
Issue number9960
StatePublished - Dec 13 2014

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Medicine(all)


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