Industrial use of nanotechnology in daily life has produced an emphasis on the safe and efficient production of nanoparticles (NPs). Traditional chemical oxidation and reduction methods are seen as inefficient, environmentally unsound, and often dangerous to those exposed and involved in NP manufacturing. However, utilizing microorganisms for biosynthesis of NPs allows efficient green production of a range of inorganic NPs, while maintaining specific size, shape, stability, and dispersity. Microorganisms living under harsh environmental conditions, called “Extremophiles,” are one group of microorganisms being utilized for this biosynthesis. Extremophiles’ unique living conditions have endowed them with various processes that enable NP biosynthesis. This includes a range of extremophiles: thermophiles, acidophilus, halophiles, psychrophiles, anaerobes, and some others. Fungi, bacteria, yeasts, and archaea, i.e. Ureibacillus thermosphaericus, and Geobacillus stearothermophilus, among others, have been established for NP biosynthesis. This article highlights the extremophiles and methods found to be viable candidates for the production of varying types of NPs, as well as interpreting selective methods used by the organisms to synthesize NPs.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology