There is a paucity of published information available on extrapulmonary cryptococcosis (EC) in children infected with human immunodeficiency virus, the etiologic agent of the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. We surveyed investigators in pediatric acquired immunodeficiency syndrome around the country regarding their experience with EC. Investigators from 33 (87%) of 38 institutions responded and information on 13 patients from 11 institutions was analyzed. EC was the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome indicator disease in 9 (69%) of 13 patients. Median age was 8 years with a range of 2 to 17 years. Human immunodeficiency virus risk factors were transfusion (5 patients), hemophilia (4 patients) and perinatal exposure (4 patients). Meningitis, seen in 62% of patients, was the most common clinical manifestation. Although 2 patients with fulminant disease died before therapy was started, 10 (91%) of 11 had a clinical response to amphotericin B with or without flucytosine. Our study indicates a spectrum of EC in pediatric human immunodeficiency virus infection ranging from fulminant, fatal fungemia to chronic meningitis and fever of unknown origin. Cryptococcosis was generally not the cause of death in patients who initially responded to amphotericin B therapy. Optimal antifungal therapy, including the role of fluconazole, warrants further study.
- Acquired immunodificiency syndrome
- Human immunodificiency virus infection
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Pediatrics, Perinatology, and Child Health
- Microbiology (medical)
- Infectious Diseases